PSY ch. 11 notes
PSY ch. 11 notes PSY2012
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabella Morles on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY2012 at University of Florida taught by Professor Kimberly Smith in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 04/17/16
Chapter 11 General Psychology Emotion and Motivation Emotion Mental states or feelings Associated with evaluation of experiences Display rules- how/when emotions expressed o Emotion itself not influenced o Culturally influenced Biological Theories of Emotion Discrete emotions theory: only small numbers of distinct primary emotions o Biologically based- innate o Emotions serve evolutionary functions o Secondary emotions: combinations of primary emotions Cognitive Theories of Emotion Does your heart pound because you are afraid? Or are you afraid because your heart is pounding? James Lange Theory- you are afraid because your heart is pounding. (bear makes your heart pound which makes you scared) Emotions = our interpretations of bodily reactions Canon-Bard Theory- You are BOTH afraid AND your heart is pounding. (bar makes your heart pound and your fear to increase) Emotions = simultaneous biological + subjective experience Two Factor Theory- two events required for emotion to occur o Undifferentiated arousal (freaking out) o Assign arousal to event Bear makes your heart pump and brain think I am afraid – you react by being afraid Emotion= explanation for arousal Somatic Marker Theory- somatic (physical) marker (signal) (bear -> heart pounding and fear) (that is our “gut” reaction) -> run Emotion = gut feeling that tells us how to act (running away) Unconscious Influences: Emotions may be automatically generated Subliminal exposure to cues (+/-) influences emotions Mere exposure effect – prefer for something merely because are familiar it Facial feedback hypothesis- our facial expressions can cause us to actually feel the emotion Non-Verbal Expression: May be more influential than verbal Facial expressions Gestures Postures Nonverbal leakage- lips saying one thing – body (face, etc.) saying something different Powerful cue to trying to hide an emotion Facial expression components can tell us a lot. Duchenne: genuine smile (eye corners crinkle and lids drop) Pan Am: fake smile (no eye changes) ~Gestures can convey emotion As illustrators: gestures for emphasis (clap hands, point) As manipulators: when stressed (twirl hair, bit nails) As emblems: more culture specific (cross fingers) ~Posture and proximity to others can convey emotion. Proxemics: study of “personal space” Public- 12’+ Social- 4’-12’+ Personal- 1.5’-4’+ Intimate- 0’-1.5’ Moderate differences: gender (women closer), culture Lying Lie detection- most are not good at it Machines not so good at it either Measure autonomic responses o Anxiety related Rely on Pinocchio response High rates of false positives Other means of trying to detect lies: Guilty knowledge test Integrity tests- assess beliefs about lying, cheating, stealing Brain fingerprinting (brain imagining) Why do you think these might not work that well? Arousal does not equal guilt (like if you put a harsh spotlight on someone, or put someone on a lie detector machine and get aggressive) Happiness What is it about all those happy people? Having lots of friends Being married Graduating college Being deeply spiritual/religious Political affiliation Exercise Level of gratitude Giving to others… Broaden and Build theory: Happiness= likely to think more openly See bigger picture Optimism makes life easier May= health benefits (physical and psychological) Motivation Intrinsic vs extrinsic motivation Intrinsic- internally motivated o Self esteem o Knowledge o Confidence Extrinsic- externally motivated o Food o Prizes o Grades Goal approach vs avoidance As we draw nearer a goal, avoidance outweighs approach Difficulty finishing tasks Regretting prior commitments Yerkes-Dodson Law Intermediate levels of arousal are better More motivated Better performance More content Theories of Motivation Drive-Reduction vs Incentive Drive Reduction Theories: We are driven (motivated) to reduce aversive states Primary drives (hunger, thirst, sexual frustration) Goal= maintain homeostasis Doesn’t explain engagement other behaviors Incentive Theories: We are often motivated by positive goals. Some needs take priority over others Primary= biological Secondary= psychological Driven to satisfy primary first but then move to secondary Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (top to bottom) Self-actualization – esteem needs – belonging needs- safety needs- psychological needs Attraction Influenced by social factors Proximity (nearness) Similarity (like likes like) Reciprocity (give and take) Level of physical appeal
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