Ch.. 13-14 Psych Notes
Ch.. 13-14 Psych Notes PSY2012
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabella Morles on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY2012 at University of Florida taught by Professor Kimberly Smith in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 04/17/16
Ch. 13 Social Psychology What is social psych? Influence of others behavior, beliefs and attitudes Need to belong theory - a biologically based need for interpersonal connections Evolution based - getting along necessary for survival Depression, anxiety, reduced brain function - when alone Social comparison theory: Comparing self to others can boost self-esteem ◦ upward social comparison - self to others 'superior' to I am like them ◦ Downward social comparison - self to others 'inferior' to I am not like them Social facilitation - around others = better performance When tasks are easy Social disruption- around promotes = worse performance When tasks are difficult Social contagion - look to others to decide how to act Ambiguous (not sure) situation ‣ Example: Mass hysteria: war of the worlds (radio show), urban legends, McCarthyism (US gov infiltrated by 'communists'), Y2K (computers will crash in the year 2000) Attribution- assigning cause for event or behavior • Fundamental attribution error- assigning the WRONG cause/ reason for an event or behavior ◦ Kids screaming and misbehaving on a subway train while dad doesn't do anything, another women tells him to watch his kids that he's a bad father and he says they are coming from his wife's funeral. Influence of others’ behaviors, beliefs and attitudes. Not me fallacy - "I" am not influenced by others 'Getting along' (conforming, obedience, etc) usually adaptive but not when unquestioning Conformity-when group/social pressure alters behavior • Collectivist societies tend to be more conforming (value group behavior) • Low self esteem Conformity: ~Acsh Experiments: people giving the answer everyone else did, even if it was wrong All (vs some) increased conformity Less likely to conform is just one other person differed 5 or less people = lower conformity; >5 increased ~Stanford Prison Experiments Deindividuation Groups = loss of self-identification Act differently when anonymous Closed down after 5-8 days Conformity Group think - unanimity at the expense of critical thinking o Don't rock the boat mentality o Unanimity may be an illusion (“obviously, we all agree”.) o Fear of reprisals from group o Self-censorship o Mind guards o Stereotyping of the outgroup Group polarization- group discussion strengthens majority view o Current political climate o Tend to seek only similar confirmatory views o Cults ‣ Obedience: submitting to authority Milgram Experiment - shock one Willingness to increase shock was affected by different things (chart in book) Bystander effect: o Pluralistic ignorance- maybe my perception is wrong? o Diffusion of responsibility: It's not my job or responsibility o Social loafing- group member slacking Attitudes and behavior o Attitudes - how we fell about issues and people *includes an emotional component •Don't always predict our behavior (r=.38) •Higher self-monitoring increases unpredictability Cognitive dissonance: unpleasant feeling when holding conflicting Views Cognitive dissonance theory: our attitudes change to resolve the conflict (assimilate or accommodate) Self-perception theory- attitudes developed as we observe our own behaviors Impression management theory- our attitudes don't actually change - we just tell others they did Persuasion techniques - getting people to agree • Foot in the door - start with a small request before making a bigger one • Door in the face- start with a large request before making a smaller one • Low ball - start with lowest Price, then start adding on • But you are free- start emphasizing it is their choice (it's all up to you) in-group: you self as belonging to (like me) out-group: perceive self NOT belonging to (not like me) Stereotyping- beliefs (positive or negative) about characteristics of a group (ex: all tall people are creative) Prejudice- negative attitudes towards out-group Explicit - conscious Implicit- unconscious Discrimination- ACT of treating out group members differently (we serve whites only, men only, no gays allowed) Where does it come from? Scapegoat hypothesis o Blaming others for our misfortune o Competition for scarce resources Just world hypothesis • The world is a just place SO: you must have done something to cause this to happen social conformity - band wagon fallacy Personality Ch. 14 Personality - typical ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving Traits- enduring predispositions for behavior How we study personality? Nomothetic: identify general laws that govern general behavior of all people Characterizing personality “types” that apply across populations (DSM-VI) Idiographic- identify individual patterns of behavior o Case studies Twin studies o High for genetic influence o Stronger for some traits than others (identical more likely than fraternal) Psychoanalytic theory Personality= interaction between 3 main forces ID: our primitive impulses (I want it now) (devil) Pleasure principle Immediate gratification Superego: sense of morality (you can’t have it. It is not right) (angel) Ego: the boss - decision maker (achieves a balance)(I need to do a bit of planning to get it) Reality principle Defense mechanisms: Unconscious anxiety reducers (chart on book) Cognitive/social learning theory: Thinking (cognition) causes personality • Reciprocal determinism- tendency for people/events to mutually influence each other (I am scared to speak publicly but I won't work on it so I won't get better) • Locus of control - extent to which we believe we can control what happens ◦ Internal - I have a lot of control over what happens ◦ External - what happens to me mostly controlled by others Humanistic theory: Need for self-actualization drives personality Self-actualization- desire to develop to fullest potential Organism- innate, genetic blueprint Self- set of beliefs about who we are Conditions of worth- expectations we place on ourselves Trait Models of Personality The Big 5 (OCEAN- open, conscientious, extraverted, agreeable, neuroticism) Identify traits believed common to everyone in varying digress Nomotheic Lexical approach- critical personality features embedded in language The Big 5 extraversion: social, lively, outgoing neuroticism: tense, moody, worry a lot agreeableness: easy to get along with conscientiousness: careful & responsible openness: curious with unconventional outlook Stability of Personality Traits Will I always be this way? Up to age 30: personality changes tend to become LESS extraversion, neuroticism, openness MORE agreeableness, conscientiousness 30-50: little change After 50: no change
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