Week 4- Synapse and Nervous/Sensory Systems
Week 4- Synapse and Nervous/Sensory Systems Biology 152
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by BettyAnn Mead on Friday February 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 152 at University of Massachusetts taught by Peteh in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 60 views.
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Date Created: 02/13/15
Synapse Place where synaptic terminals of one neuron come into contact with another neuron Presynaptic Cell Action potential in presynaptic cell Depolarization of presynaptic membrane Voltagegated calcium channels open In ux of calcium ions Synaptic vesicles fuse with presynaptic membrane Neurotransmitter is released from vesicles by exocytosis Synaptic Cleft Neurotransmitter diffuses across synaptic cleft Neurotransmitter removed from synaptic cleft Postsynaptic Cell Neurotransmitter binds to receptors in membrane Ion channels coupled to the receptor open Membrane potential changes 0 Change can be depolarizing excitatory 0 Change can be hyperpolarizing inhibitory Electrical change in postsynaptic neuron as a result of binding of neurotransmitter to receptor is called 0 Excitatory Synapse Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential EPSP Open gated channels that allows sodium to enter and potassium to exit 0 Inhibitory Synapse Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential IPSP Open gated channels that allows chloride to enter and potassium to exit Temporal Summation Generated from a single neuron repeatedly Spatial Summation A sum of multiple neuron signals Sub Threshold DO NOT reach threshold NO ACTION POTENTIAL Types of Synapses Neuron to neuron Neuromuscular Neuron to gland General Characteristics of Neurotransmitters Most neurons release only one neurotransmitter but some may release two or more 0 More than 100 neurotransmitters are known Neurotransmitters may be synthesized in the axon terminal or in the cell body and then transported In either case the synthesizing enzymes are made in the cell body Blockers Drugs or poisons that block receptor Reuptake Blocker Blocks the neurotransmitter from connecting to receptors Evolution of Nervous System Vertebrate Neurons Voltagegated channels 0 Unidirectional transmission 0 Chemical synapses Evolutionary Sequence 0 Ion channels gt Voltagegated channels 0 Bidirectional gt Unidirectional Electrical junctions gt Chemical synapses The Brain 0 CNS Organization Highly organized into tightly integrated funcUonalsubun s Wrinkles increase surface area and connections Emergence of cephalization cephala head Vertebrates develop three brain regions 0 Hindbrain o Midbrain o Forebrain Thinking and decision making Forebrain became important in mammals Somatomic Voluntary Autonomic Nonvoluntary Sympathetic Parasympathetic Transduction Transformation of one type of energy into electrical impulses in nervous system 0 Sensory receptor Transducers Types of Sensory Receptors Mechanoreceptors Pressure touch motion and sound 0 Pain Receptors Excess heat pressure chemicals released from in ammation 0 Thermo Receptors Cold and hot interoreceptors for temperature to anterior hypothalamus Chemoreceptors Solute concentration as well to speci c molecules Photoreceptors Sensory receptors in the eyes that respond to photons of light energy Interoception Sensory processes having to do with conditions outside the body Exteroreception Sensory processes having to do with conditions outside the body Gravity 0 Motion
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