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Chapter 1 Study Guide/Notes

by: Carlee Gray

Chapter 1 Study Guide/Notes 41060

Marketplace > George Washington University > 41060 > Chapter 1 Study Guide Notes
Carlee Gray
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About this Document

Notes for the first chapter (week 1) of Rohrbeck's class.
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carlee Gray on Friday February 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 41060 at George Washington University taught by Rohrbeck in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 63 views.


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Date Created: 02/13/15
Abnormal Psychology Chapter 1 02142015 Chapter One Introduction to Abnormal Psychology Mental disorder group of emotional feelings cognitive thinking or behavioral symptoms that cause distress or signi cant problems most common depression Abnormal Psychology scienti c study of problematic feelings thoughts and behaviors associated with mental disorders What is a Mental Disorder quotNormalquot behavior that which characterizes most people 3 Criteria to Determine Abnormality 1 deviance from the norm advantages use our own judgment or gut feeling once statistical or objective cutoff scores are established they are easy to apply disadvantages different cultures have different ideas about what normal is statistically deviant behaviors may be valued ex high intelligence arbitrary cutoffs score of 80 vs 81 2 dif culties adapting to life 5 demands or dif culties functioning effectiveydangerous behavior advantages easy to observe is someone is having difficulty prompts people to seek psychological treatment disadvantages unclear who determines impairment or whether a consensus about impairment is required thresholds for impairment aren t clear maladaptive behavior one that interferes with a person s life including the ability to care for oneself have good relationships with others and function well at school or at work 3 experience of personal distress advantages hallmark of many forms of mental disorder individuals may be able to accurately report this disadvantages psychological problems are not always associated with distress thresholds or cutoffs for distress aren t always clear De ning Abnormality quotWe refer to emotions thoughts or behaviors as abnormal when theyquot 1 violate social norms or are statistically deviant Treva insisting she s a different person 2 interfere with functioning Sasha worries kept her from performing well at school 3 cause great personal distress Margaret s fear of bridges and tunnels psychopathologists study mental problems to see how disorders develop and continue and how they can be prevented or treated Dimensions Underlying Mental Disorders Are Relevant to Everyone quotemotions thoughts and behaviors associated With mental disorders are present to some degree in all of us Summary mental disorder is a group of emotional feelings cognitive thinking or behavior symptoms that cause distress or signi cant problems 14 American adults has a mental disorder each year abnormal psychology is the study of troublesome emotions thoughts and behaviors associated with mental disorders emotions thoughts and behaviors are considered abnormal when they 1 deviate greatly from the norm 2 interfere With daily functioning 3 ca use substantial personal distress psychopathologists study mental problems to see how disorders develop and continue and how they can be prevented or alleviated abnormal behaviors and characteristics are not necessarily only present or absent but actually occur to some degree in all of us History of Abnormal Psychology Early Perspectives attributed abnormal behavior to supernatural causes such as possession by demons or evil spirits forms of treatment exorcism attempt to cast out a spirit possessing an individual trephination cutting a hole in the person s skull to help release a harmful spirit goal of treatment make a person an unpleasant uncomfortable or painful host for the spirit or demon Early Greek and Roman Thought Hippocrates father of modern medicine rejected demons and evil spirits as causes of abnormal behavior but rather abnormal behavior resultred from brain disorders or dysfunctions Treatments recommended special diets rest no alcohol exercise ceHbacy Middle Ages went back to demon possession being the prominent explanation of abnormal behavior and treatment focused on prayer holy objects or relics etc mass madness groups would be af icted at the same time with the same disorder or abnormal behavior ex tarantium lycanthropy etc Renaissance rebirth of natural and scienti c approaches to health and human behavior Paracelsus Swiss physician introduced the notion of psychic or mental causes for abnormal behavior and proposed a treatment called hypnosE asylums places set aside for people with mental disorders Reform Movement Philippe Pinel head of Paris mental hospital who was shocked by living conditions he unchained the patients and placed them in sunny rooms and allowed them to exercise which greatly improved their mental states Dorothea Dix credited with helping to reform treatment of persons with mental disorder in the US moral treatment humane type of care emphasized during the reform movement period Modern Era modern approach accepting those with mental disorder as people who need professional attention mental hygiene movement A Mind That Found Itself by Clifford Beers described own experiences with mental disorder and his maltreatment in an institution Beers founded the Connecticut Society for Mental Hygiene in 1908 and National Committee for Mental Hygiene in 1909 1 somatogenic emphasizing physical bodily causes of behavior 2 psychogenic emphasizing psychological or mindrelated causes of behavior Interim Summary Demon Possession l healthy diets exercise education supernatural return l asylums built and natural and scienti c approaches returned l accept those with mental disorder and apply biomedical and psychological methods Abnormal Psychology and Life Dimensional Perspective continuum of emotions thoughts and behvaiors that characterize mental disorder when these normal emotions or htoughts become frequent or severe then a mental disorder may be present notion that people differ only in their degree of symptoms Prevention Perspective mental hygiene science of promoting mental health and thwarting mental disorder through education early treatment and public health measures public health model focuses on promoting good health and good health practices to avert disease Types of Prevention 1 primary targeting large groups of people sometimes entire public who have not yet developed a mental disorder 2 secondary address emerging problems while they are still manageable before they become resistant to intervention ex early detection and treatment of college students with potentially damaging drinkning problems 3 tertiary reducing severity duration and negative effects of a mental disorder after it has occurred lessen the effects of an already diagnosed disorder ex various medical and psychological treatments for mental disorders consumer perspective become a more informed consumer of scienti c information on mental health that is often presented in the popular press multicultural psychology examine the effect of culture on the way people think feel and act stigma characterization by others of disgrace or reproach based on an individual characteristic fought with 1 education and 2 promoting personal contact public stigma general disgrace o the public confers on people with mental disorder that can result in prejudice stereotyping and discrimination selfstigma disgrace people assign themselves because of public stigma people adopt the public notion that a mental disorder is something to be ashamed of


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