Vitamins and Minerals
Vitamins and Minerals EXSC 408
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ticynn London on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EXSC 408 at Old Dominion University taught by Kim Baskette in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Nutrition in Physical Education at Old Dominion University.
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Date Created: 04/17/16
Vitamins Classification of Vitamins Micronutrients needed for proper physiological functioning - Typically classified based on solubility Physiological function ¡ Energy ¡ RBC formation ¡ Antioxidants- kills free radicals ¡ Growth and development DRI & UL ¡ UI only established for 8 of 14 due to lack of scientific data Absorption & transportation Fat-soluble vitamins ¡ Absorbed & transported in same manner as fats ¡ Occurs with in several hours ¡ Stored in liver and adipose tissue Water-soluble vitamins ¡ Readily absorbed & circulate in blood unbound ¡ No designated storage site in the body ¡ Once saturation in tissues occurs, excess amounts excreted in urine (B6- nervous system damage) ¡ Consumption of excess amounts can result in toxicity with some vitamins Exercise & vitamins Potential effects of moderate to vigorous exercise ¡ Decrease absorption from GI tract ¡ Increase excretion in sweat and urine ¡ Increase utilization ¡ Increase need to due to growth and maintained of SM mass Are DRI levels sufficient for moderate to vigorous training? ¡ Studies focused mainly on B vitamins & antioxidants (E, C, & A) ¡ Some evidence showing increase need for B6, riboflavin and thiamin during exercise. Diet and Vitamin Level Low intake found amongst athletes & sedentary adults Inadequate energy intake Adequate energy intake with poor food choices Vitamin deficiencies Occurs through progression of stages ¡ Subclinical & clinical deficiencies Mild deficiencies ¡ Develops over time due to low or absent vitamin intake ¡ Causes – nutrient intake, GI disease (lack of B12) Moderate deficiencies ¡ No clinical signs of medical disease ¡ Physiological functions begin to be affected with subtle changes ÷ Vit A –vision change ÷ Vit D – Bone pain and muscle weakness Clinical deficiencies ¡ Development of disease associated with vitamin deficiency ÷ Manifestation of medical signs & symptoms ÷ Examples Beriberi – thiamine Rickets - Vit D Pellagra- Niacin ÷ Developing toxicities ¡ Normally takes months to years to develop ¡ Initial symptoms –lethargy, clinical manifestation ¡ Rare in U.S. – reported with A, D, and B6 ¡ Multivitamin supplements Roles of vitamins in the body Contain unique chemical composition & biochemical roles ¡ Cofactors for enzymatic reactions (coenzyme)- all B vit Complex processes in the body ¡ Vit E and C, and beta-carotene anti-oxidative properties Differentiation, growth, development, & cell maintenance ¡ Examples: Vitamin A – proper cell differentiation Vitamin D – bone formation Interact with other vitamins & minerals ¡ Ex. Vitamin C – interacts with Fe and Cu to allow for optimal absorption Mineral Classification of minerals Twenty-one essential minerals ¡ Macrominerals – large amounts ¡ Microminerals – small amounts Functions - Bone formation - Electrolytes (Na, K, Cl) - RBC formation - Coenzymes - Immune system function Mineral Loss Sweat – biggest, concern with loss of Na, Cl, and K ¡ Adaptation to heat: in conservation of Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn Urine ¡ Acute exercise ÷ Increased Zn: blood levels increase excretion ÷ Increased Fe: excretion compared to sedentary indv. Moderate losses may be offset by adequate food intake Adequate mineral intake from foods Athletes with low energy intake likely to be deficient in one or more: Ca, Fe, Zn, Se, Mg, Cu Higher incidence in distance runners, gymnasts, ballet dancers, teenage synchronized skaters, wrestlers, & jockeys - Subs with Fe and Zn (fortified foods) Mineral balance Mineral balance - interplay of storage, absorption, & excretion: stored in tissues (will alter) Hormonal control – maintains levels of some minerals (Ca) Absorption of minerals ¡ Dependent on levels in body ¡ 70% of P consumed in diet normally (rates can drop) Mineral Absorption Competition for absorption occurs based on amounts consumed ¡ Occurs primarily with divalent cautions - Same binding agents and cellular receptor site - Ca, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg ¡ Problems can be created with excessive intake of one mineral through supplements: absorption of Cu, Fe, and Ca decreases with Zn Better absorbed when food present in GI tract Compounds known to interfere with absorption Phytic acid (phylates)& oxalates Sugars: Cu, Mg, Zn Soluble Fibers: pectin, gum Ascorbic Acid: Fe Insoluble fiber Compounds known to increase absorption Vitamin C in oranges increases absorption of Fe found in plant foods, such as the beans used in chili. Mineral deficiencies Can occur over time with low intake levels ¡ Progression from subclinical to clinical deficiency ¡ Ex. Zn deficiency ÷ Subclinical – decrease appetite, poor healing ÷ Clinical deficiency – impaired taste, night blindness Subclinical deficiencies ¡ Fe deficiency without anemia ÷ Incidence rate estimates in female adolescent & adult athletes ÷ Fe (25-36% female) ¡ Osteopenia ÷ Incidence rate estimates – Men - 30% ÷ Women - 49% ÷ Athletes – 11-22% Fe deficiency anemia – fatigue, reduction in aerobic capacity & endurance: 3% of women 12-49yrs Osteoporosis ¡ Prevalence – 8 mil women and 2 mil men older than 50 ¡ Female athletes – can occur with prolonged low caloric intake concurrent with high-energy expenditure ÷ Reduces amount of circulating estrogen ÷ Amenorrhea – result of low energy
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