New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Abnormal Psychology Ch.12 notes.

by: Derek Schrick

Abnormal Psychology Ch.12 notes. Psych 433

Marketplace > University of Missouri - Kansas City > Psychlogy > Psych 433 > Abnormal Psychology Ch 12 notes
Derek Schrick
GPA 3.67

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover Ch.12 for Abnormal Psychology.
Abnormal Psychology
K. Harry
Class Notes
Abnormal psychology
25 ?




Popular in Abnormal Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Derek Schrick on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 433 at University of Missouri - Kansas City taught by K. Harry in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - Kansas City.


Reviews for Abnormal Psychology Ch.12 notes.


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/17/16
Abnormal Psychology Chapter 12 Personality Disorders An Overview Personality Disorders - Personality disorders - A persistent pattern of emotions, cognitions and behavior that results in enduring emotional distress for the person affected and/or for others and may cause difficulties with work and relationships An Overview Personality Disorders - High comorbidity - Poorer prognosis - Therapist reactions - Countertransference - 10 specific personality disorders - 3 clusters Categorical and Dimensional Models - Categorical vs. dimensional models - “Kind” vs. “Degree” - Dimensions instead of categories - By a dimensional model individuals would not only be given categorical diagnoses but also would be rated on a series of personality dimensions - “Emerging measures and models” Categorical and Dimensional Models - Five factor model of personality (“Big Five”) - Openness to experience - Conscientiousness - Extraversion - Agreeableness - Emotional stability - Cross-cultural research establishes the universal nature of the five dimensions Personality Disorder Clusters - Cluster A - Odd or eccentric - Paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal - Cluster B - Dramatic, emotional, erratic - Antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic Personality Disorder Clusters - Cluster C Abnormal Psychology - Fearful or anxious - Avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive Personality Disorder Clusters Statistics and Development - Prevalence = 6%, may be closer to 10% - Origins and course - Begin in childhood --Chronic course -Can remit but is replaced by other personality disorder -High comorbidity Statistics and Development Gender Differences - Men diagnosed with a personality disorder tend to display traits characterized as more - Aggressive, structured, self-assertive and detached - Women tend to present with characteristics that are - More submissive, emotional and insecure Gender Differences - Clinician bias - Assessment bias - Criterion gender bias - Histrionic = extreme “stereotypical female” - No “macho” disorder - Ford and Widiger (1889) Comorbidity - Comorbidity - Personality disorders- 10% Personality Disorders Under Study - Categories of disorders - Sadistic - Passive aggressive Personality Disorders Under Study Personality Disorders Under Study -Cluster A: Paranoid Clinical description - Mistrust and suspicion - Pervasive - Unjustified - Few meaningful relationships - Volatile - Tense - Sensitive to criticism Cluster A: Paranoid - Causes Abnormal Psychology - Possible relationship to schizophrenia - Possible role of early experience - Trauma - Learning - People are malevolent and deceptive - Cultural factors - Prisoners - refugees - people with hearing impairments - older adults Cluster A: Paranoid - Treatment - Unlikely to seek on own - Crisis - Focus on developing trust - Cognitive therapy - Assumptions - No empirically-supported treatments - Poor improvement rate Cluster A: Paranoid Cluster A: Schizoid - Clinical description - Appear to neither enjoy nor desire relationships - Loner --Limited range of emotions -Appear cold, detached -Appear unaffected by praise, criticism - Unable or unwilling to express emotion - No thought disorder Cluster A: Schizoid - Causes - Limited research - Precursor: childhood shyness - Possibly related to: - Abuse/neglect - Autism -Cluster A: Schizoid - Treatment Unlikely to seek on own - Crisis - Focus on relationships - Social skills therapy - Empathy training - Role playing - Social network building Abnormal Psychology - Empirically-supported treatments limited- Cluster A: Schizoid - Cluster A: Schizoid Cluster A: Schizotypal - Clinical description - Psychotic-like symptoms - Magical thinking - Ideas of reference - Illusions - Odd and/or unusual - Behavior - Appearance - Socially isolated - Suspicious Cluster A: Schizotypal - Causes - Schizophrenia phenotype? - Lack full biological or environmental contributions - Cognitive impairments - Left hemisphere - More generalized Cluster A: Schizotypal - Treatment - Treatment of comorbid depression 30 – 50% - Multidimensional approach - Social skill training - Antipsychotic medications - Community treatment Cluster A: Schizotypal Cluster B: Antisocial - Clinical description - Noncompliance with social norms - “Social Predators” - Violate rights of others - Irresponsible - Impulsive - Deceitful - Lack a conscience, empathy, and remorse Cluster B: Antisocial - Nature of psychopathy - Glibness/superficial charm - Grandiose sense of self-worth - Pathological lying - Conning/manipulative - Lack of remorse Abnormal Psychology - Callous/lack of empathy Cluster B: Antisocial - DSM-5 - More trait based approach - Overlap with ASPD, criminality - Intelligence -Cluster B: Antisocial - Developmental considerations Early histories of behavioral problems - Conduct disorder - childhood-onset type - adolescent-onset type - Families history of: - Inconsistent parental discipline - Variable support - Criminality - Violence Cluster B: Antisocial Causes of Antisocial Personality - Gene-environment interaction - Genetic predisposition - Environmental triggers - Arousal hypotheses - Underarousal - Fearlessness Causes of Antisocial Personality - Gray’s model of brain functioning - Behavioral inhibition system (BIS) - Low - Reward system High - Fight/flight system Causes of Antisocial Personality - Interactive, integrative model - Genetic vulnerability - Neurotransmitters - Environmental factors - Family stress and dysfunction - Reinforcement of antisocial behaviors - Alienation from good role models - Poor occupational/social function Antisocial Personality Disorder - Treatment - Unlikely to seek on own - High recidivism - Incarceration Abnormal Psychology - Early intervention - Prevention - Parent training - Rewards for pro-social behaviors - Skills training - Improve social competence Cluster B: Borderline - Clinical description -1 – 2% of population - Patterns of instability - Intense moods - Turbulent relationships - Impulsivity - Very poor self-image - Self-mutilation - Suicidal gestures Cluster B: Borderline Cluster B: Borderline - Comorbid disorders - Depression – 20% - Suicide – 6% - Bipolar – 40% - Substance abuse – 67% - Eating disorders - 25% of bulimics have BPD Cluster B: Borderline - Causes - Genetic/biological components - Serotonin - Limbic network - Cognitive biases - Early childhood experience - Neglect - Trauma - Abuse - An Integrative Model Cluster B: Borderline - Treatment - Highly likely to seek treatment - Antidepressant medications - Dialectical behavior therapy - Reduce “interfering” behaviors - Self-harm - Treatment - Quality of life Abnormal Psychology - Outcomes Cluster B: Histrionic - Clinical description - Center of attention - Sexually provocative - Shallow shifting emotions - Physical appearance-focused - Impressionistic - Overly dramatic - Suggestible - Misinterprets relationships Cluster B: Histrionic Cluster B: Histrionic - Causes - Little research - Links with antisocial personality - Sex-typed alternative expression Cluster B: Histrionic - Treatment - Problematic interpersonal relationships - Attention seeking - Long-term consequences of behavior - Little empirical support Cluster B: Narcissistic - Clinical description - Exaggerated and unreasonable sense of selfimportance - Grandiosity - Require attention - Lack sensitivity and compassion - Sensitive to criticism - Envious - Arrogant Cluster B: Narcissistic Cluster B: Narcissistic - Causes - Deficits in early childhood learning - Altruism - Empathy - Sociological view - Increased individual focus - “Me generation” Cluster B: Narcissistic - Treatment focuses on: - Grandiosity - Lack of empathy - Hypersensitivity to evaluation - Co-occurring depression Abnormal Psychology - Little empirical support Cluster C: Avoidant - Clinical description - Extreme sensitivity to opinions - Avoid most relationships - Interpersonally anxious - Fearful of rejection Cluster C: Avoidant Cluster C: Avoidant -Causes - Schizophrenia-related disorders - Difficult temperament - Early parental rejection - Interpersonal isolation and conflict Cluster C: Avoidant - Treatment - Similar to social phobia - Increase social skills - Therapeutic alliance - Moderate empirical support Cluster C: Dependent - Clinical description - Rely on others for major and minor decisions - Unreasonable fear of abandonment - Clingy - Submissive - Timid - Passive - Feelings of inadequacy - Sensitivity to criticism - High need for reassurance Cluster C: Dependent Cluster C: Dependent - Causes - Little research - Early experience - Death of a parent - Rejection by caregiver - Attachment - Genetic influences Cluster C: Dependent - Treatment - Limited empirical support - Caution: dependence on therapist - Gradual increases in: - Independence - Personal responsibility Abnormal Psychology - Confidence Cluster C: Obsessive-Compulsive - Clinical description - Fixation on doing things the “right way” - Rigid - Perfectionistic - Orderly - Preoccupation with details - Poor interpersonal relationships - Obsessions and compulsions are rare Cluster C: Obsessive-Compulsive Cluster C: Obsessive-Compulsive - Causes - Limited research - Weak genetic contributions - Predisposed to favor structure? Cluster C: Obsessive-Compulsive - Treatment - Similar to OCD - Address fears related to the need for orderliness - Limited efficacy data


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.