Abnormal Psychology Ch.12 notes.
Abnormal Psychology Ch.12 notes. Psych 433
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Derek Schrick on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 433 at University of Missouri - Kansas City taught by K. Harry in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - Kansas City.
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Date Created: 04/17/16
Abnormal Psychology Chapter 12 Personality Disorders An Overview Personality Disorders - Personality disorders - A persistent pattern of emotions, cognitions and behavior that results in enduring emotional distress for the person affected and/or for others and may cause difficulties with work and relationships An Overview Personality Disorders - High comorbidity - Poorer prognosis - Therapist reactions - Countertransference - 10 specific personality disorders - 3 clusters Categorical and Dimensional Models - Categorical vs. dimensional models - “Kind” vs. “Degree” - Dimensions instead of categories - By a dimensional model individuals would not only be given categorical diagnoses but also would be rated on a series of personality dimensions - “Emerging measures and models” Categorical and Dimensional Models - Five factor model of personality (“Big Five”) - Openness to experience - Conscientiousness - Extraversion - Agreeableness - Emotional stability - Cross-cultural research establishes the universal nature of the five dimensions Personality Disorder Clusters - Cluster A - Odd or eccentric - Paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal - Cluster B - Dramatic, emotional, erratic - Antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic Personality Disorder Clusters - Cluster C Abnormal Psychology - Fearful or anxious - Avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive Personality Disorder Clusters Statistics and Development - Prevalence = 6%, may be closer to 10% - Origins and course - Begin in childhood --Chronic course -Can remit but is replaced by other personality disorder -High comorbidity Statistics and Development Gender Differences - Men diagnosed with a personality disorder tend to display traits characterized as more - Aggressive, structured, self-assertive and detached - Women tend to present with characteristics that are - More submissive, emotional and insecure Gender Differences - Clinician bias - Assessment bias - Criterion gender bias - Histrionic = extreme “stereotypical female” - No “macho” disorder - Ford and Widiger (1889) Comorbidity - Comorbidity - Personality disorders- 10% Personality Disorders Under Study - Categories of disorders - Sadistic - Passive aggressive Personality Disorders Under Study Personality Disorders Under Study -Cluster A: Paranoid Clinical description - Mistrust and suspicion - Pervasive - Unjustified - Few meaningful relationships - Volatile - Tense - Sensitive to criticism Cluster A: Paranoid - Causes Abnormal Psychology - Possible relationship to schizophrenia - Possible role of early experience - Trauma - Learning - People are malevolent and deceptive - Cultural factors - Prisoners - refugees - people with hearing impairments - older adults Cluster A: Paranoid - Treatment - Unlikely to seek on own - Crisis - Focus on developing trust - Cognitive therapy - Assumptions - No empirically-supported treatments - Poor improvement rate Cluster A: Paranoid Cluster A: Schizoid - Clinical description - Appear to neither enjoy nor desire relationships - Loner --Limited range of emotions -Appear cold, detached -Appear unaffected by praise, criticism - Unable or unwilling to express emotion - No thought disorder Cluster A: Schizoid - Causes - Limited research - Precursor: childhood shyness - Possibly related to: - Abuse/neglect - Autism -Cluster A: Schizoid - Treatment Unlikely to seek on own - Crisis - Focus on relationships - Social skills therapy - Empathy training - Role playing - Social network building Abnormal Psychology - Empirically-supported treatments limited- Cluster A: Schizoid - Cluster A: Schizoid Cluster A: Schizotypal - Clinical description - Psychotic-like symptoms - Magical thinking - Ideas of reference - Illusions - Odd and/or unusual - Behavior - Appearance - Socially isolated - Suspicious Cluster A: Schizotypal - Causes - Schizophrenia phenotype? - Lack full biological or environmental contributions - Cognitive impairments - Left hemisphere - More generalized Cluster A: Schizotypal - Treatment - Treatment of comorbid depression 30 – 50% - Multidimensional approach - Social skill training - Antipsychotic medications - Community treatment Cluster A: Schizotypal Cluster B: Antisocial - Clinical description - Noncompliance with social norms - “Social Predators” - Violate rights of others - Irresponsible - Impulsive - Deceitful - Lack a conscience, empathy, and remorse Cluster B: Antisocial - Nature of psychopathy - Glibness/superficial charm - Grandiose sense of self-worth - Pathological lying - Conning/manipulative - Lack of remorse Abnormal Psychology - Callous/lack of empathy Cluster B: Antisocial - DSM-5 - More trait based approach - Overlap with ASPD, criminality - Intelligence -Cluster B: Antisocial - Developmental considerations Early histories of behavioral problems - Conduct disorder - childhood-onset type - adolescent-onset type - Families history of: - Inconsistent parental discipline - Variable support - Criminality - Violence Cluster B: Antisocial Causes of Antisocial Personality - Gene-environment interaction - Genetic predisposition - Environmental triggers - Arousal hypotheses - Underarousal - Fearlessness Causes of Antisocial Personality - Gray’s model of brain functioning - Behavioral inhibition system (BIS) - Low - Reward system High - Fight/flight system Causes of Antisocial Personality - Interactive, integrative model - Genetic vulnerability - Neurotransmitters - Environmental factors - Family stress and dysfunction - Reinforcement of antisocial behaviors - Alienation from good role models - Poor occupational/social function Antisocial Personality Disorder - Treatment - Unlikely to seek on own - High recidivism - Incarceration Abnormal Psychology - Early intervention - Prevention - Parent training - Rewards for pro-social behaviors - Skills training - Improve social competence Cluster B: Borderline - Clinical description -1 – 2% of population - Patterns of instability - Intense moods - Turbulent relationships - Impulsivity - Very poor self-image - Self-mutilation - Suicidal gestures Cluster B: Borderline Cluster B: Borderline - Comorbid disorders - Depression – 20% - Suicide – 6% - Bipolar – 40% - Substance abuse – 67% - Eating disorders - 25% of bulimics have BPD Cluster B: Borderline - Causes - Genetic/biological components - Serotonin - Limbic network - Cognitive biases - Early childhood experience - Neglect - Trauma - Abuse - An Integrative Model Cluster B: Borderline - Treatment - Highly likely to seek treatment - Antidepressant medications - Dialectical behavior therapy - Reduce “interfering” behaviors - Self-harm - Treatment - Quality of life Abnormal Psychology - Outcomes Cluster B: Histrionic - Clinical description - Center of attention - Sexually provocative - Shallow shifting emotions - Physical appearance-focused - Impressionistic - Overly dramatic - Suggestible - Misinterprets relationships Cluster B: Histrionic Cluster B: Histrionic - Causes - Little research - Links with antisocial personality - Sex-typed alternative expression Cluster B: Histrionic - Treatment - Problematic interpersonal relationships - Attention seeking - Long-term consequences of behavior - Little empirical support Cluster B: Narcissistic - Clinical description - Exaggerated and unreasonable sense of selfimportance - Grandiosity - Require attention - Lack sensitivity and compassion - Sensitive to criticism - Envious - Arrogant Cluster B: Narcissistic Cluster B: Narcissistic - Causes - Deficits in early childhood learning - Altruism - Empathy - Sociological view - Increased individual focus - “Me generation” Cluster B: Narcissistic - Treatment focuses on: - Grandiosity - Lack of empathy - Hypersensitivity to evaluation - Co-occurring depression Abnormal Psychology - Little empirical support Cluster C: Avoidant - Clinical description - Extreme sensitivity to opinions - Avoid most relationships - Interpersonally anxious - Fearful of rejection Cluster C: Avoidant Cluster C: Avoidant -Causes - Schizophrenia-related disorders - Difficult temperament - Early parental rejection - Interpersonal isolation and conflict Cluster C: Avoidant - Treatment - Similar to social phobia - Increase social skills - Therapeutic alliance - Moderate empirical support Cluster C: Dependent - Clinical description - Rely on others for major and minor decisions - Unreasonable fear of abandonment - Clingy - Submissive - Timid - Passive - Feelings of inadequacy - Sensitivity to criticism - High need for reassurance Cluster C: Dependent Cluster C: Dependent - Causes - Little research - Early experience - Death of a parent - Rejection by caregiver - Attachment - Genetic influences Cluster C: Dependent - Treatment - Limited empirical support - Caution: dependence on therapist - Gradual increases in: - Independence - Personal responsibility Abnormal Psychology - Confidence Cluster C: Obsessive-Compulsive - Clinical description - Fixation on doing things the “right way” - Rigid - Perfectionistic - Orderly - Preoccupation with details - Poor interpersonal relationships - Obsessions and compulsions are rare Cluster C: Obsessive-Compulsive Cluster C: Obsessive-Compulsive - Causes - Limited research - Weak genetic contributions - Predisposed to favor structure? Cluster C: Obsessive-Compulsive - Treatment - Similar to OCD - Address fears related to the need for orderliness - Limited efficacy data
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