The Environment, Week of April 11
The Environment, Week of April 11 ENVT 0845-005
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katrina Salamon on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENVT 0845-005 at Temple University taught by Dr. Udoeyo in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see The Environment in Professional Education Services at Temple University.
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Date Created: 04/17/16
Air Quality Dispersion and deposition o Airflow patterns Temperature inversion Warm air forms above cold air, trapping pollutants near ground Height of emission Time in atmosphere Warm air is above the cold air Troposphere: lowest layer Stratosphere: second Mesosphere Thermosphere Ionosphere Exosphere Pollution n troposphere o Acid rain comes from nitric oxide and sulfur dioxide released from electric power plants and motor vehicles o Heavy metal pollution o Before 1920, smelters were primary source of atmospheric pollution o After 1930, they added lead into the fuel and that increased lead emissions hugely o The 1970 clean air act required that lead be removed Pollution in stratosphere o No direct effect for human health o Can influence climate Aerosols can cool earth’s surface o Alter sunlight reaching earth’s surface o Destroying the ozone CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) Indoor air pollution o More polluted than outside air o Tobacco smoke, building materials, furniture, ovens, etc. etc. etc. o Combustion byproducts Carbon monoxide, nitrogen and sulfur oxides, VOCs, particulate matter Indoor burning, second h and smoke Efforts to make buildings more energy efficient by reducing ventilation can increase the concentrations of air pollution o Worst indoor pollutant is second hand smoke (worse than actually smoking) o Very common in developing countries from cooking Case study of smokeless cooking Asbestos o Fibrous material for heat/fire proofing Breathing fibers leads to lung disease/cancer Banned in 1973 Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC’s) emit substances that are unsafe to breathe, like certain paints and other chemicals Radon o Nontoxic gas produced from decay of radium226 o Radon decays to radioactive isotopes o Bind to particulate matter o When inhaled, causes cancer o The EP estimates exposure to radon causes 1516,000 lung cancer deaths each year in the US Not significant outdoors Indoor concentration may be 1,000X concentration Radon levels can be reduced by sealing basement walls and floors, installing check valves in drains, etc. Pesticides o Wide range of toxic chemicals o Many pesticides of the past now banned o Many stored in fatty tissues in the body DDT, chlordane, pentachlorophenol Between 194888, chlordane was injected into soils and cement slabs beneath houses to control termites Before 1980, PCP was used to treat foundation timbers and the wood in log houses to prevent termites No banned Biological Contaminants Buildup of virus, bacteria, fungi o Legionnaires’ disease Bacterium that build up in air conditioning system Transmitted in aerosol to hotel lobby Many similar diseases occur Policies to control air pollution changed substantially over 60 years Legislation in 1963, 64, 67, 70, 90. International air pollution policy o Agreements to limit air pollution among countries o Driven by shared sense of need and cost sharing Geneva convention on long range trans boundary air pollution1983 o Led to protocols for reducing air pollution internationally 1999 protocol o Addressed acidification and ground level ozone Montréal protocol on ozone o Aimed to reduce ozone destruction o Established timeline and protocols for diminishing pollution Urban Ecosystems Malmö, Sweden: Sweden’s Green City o Ancient prosperous city that started to decline in the 1980s o Rebuilt a sustainable city o Most of used energy is renewable o Parks and green spaces connected with green corridors Early permanent human settlements located near supplies of food and resources o Some became cities o Centers for trade and industry Urbanization: the concentration of human populations in densely populated cities o Dependent on various factors like Growth of food supply, market economies, water and waste management, social and government structure Ancient cities o Archeological evidence of the earliest permanent human settlements dates from 15,000 years ago o Supported high population density Division of labor Centers for trade Modern cities o 1750—industrial revolution o Urbanization increased o Only small amount of people produce food Current trends o Urbanization still at rapid rate o 15% of people live in urban areas o 75% or higher in developed nations o In the US, 82% of people live in urban areas o Urban poor becoming major issue (“becoming”…? This has been a problem) o Megacities More than 10 million residents Defining urban ecosystem o Urban: 500 + people/ sq. mile o Metropolitan Large central city and adjacent communities High degree of economic and social integration Suburb might also be defined as a city if it has legally defined boundaries and a government o Material flows Require large inputs of material resources Produce large outputs of waste Urban climate o Significant climate change from rural to urban Urban heat island effect Cities warmer and less humid. The term heat island describes metropolitan areas that are hotter than nearby rural areas Pronounced at night an in the wnter due to the slow release of heat from urban infrastructure o Four characteristics drive Less vegetation Sealed surfaces (cement) Complex 3D structure buildings and street canyons that trap heat Sources produce heat and pollutants that trap heat Urban hydrology o Impervious surface cover (ISC)—percentage of land covered with sealed surfaces (concrete, asphalt, rooftops) o Reduces drainage and infiltration o Diminishes the infiltration of storm water, increasing runoff o Diminishes water quality Urban population distribution o Suburban land use increasing o Population growth o Changing patterns of development o Urban sprawl (widespread growth of land included in a metropolitan area) Per capita land consumption (1950 0.18 acres, 2000 – 0.27 acres Consequence of Urban Sprawl o Degrades human environments o Reduces biodiversity o Stresses infrastructure o Diminishes human health and wellbeing o Increased automobile traffic increases urban air pollution o Sprawl and its associated dependency on the automobile discourage physical activity Urban plans and planning o Unites various disciplines to build environments and transportation systems for urban communities Engineering Architecture Ecology Sociology o Bounding growth Zoning Urban growth boundaries (UGB’s) Sustainable urban growth—sustainable only if a combination of 10 “smart growth” strategies is employed (new urbanism) o Promote compact communities o Mix land use o Create a range of housing o Roster communities that provide a sense of place o Conserve open space, farmland, natural beauty, and critical environmental areas o Strengthen existing community o Provide variety of transportation o Create walkable neighborhoods o Make development decisions predictable, fair, and cost effective o Encourage community collaboration Automobile dependency o Sprawl leads to automobiles, which in turn encourages sprawl Balancing transportation options o Pedestrian oriented o Other forms of transportation Urban wildlife o Widely dispersed and tolerant of a wide array of environments o Invasive trees do well Efficient capture and use of energy and matter o City metabolism—recycle o What does the future hold? o Scarce resources will become scarcer o Biodiversity will decrease o Warmer climates Global warming We can diminish the magnitude of warming with a combination of actions o We can diminish the consequences through adaptation Conservation of biodiversity Increasing resilience Reducing greenhouse gas emissions o We can accelerate transition to more efficient use of resources To conserve water: o Wetland restoration to filter pollutants and restore water flow o Recycling urban water use o Water metering and pricing as incentives to prevent wast o Notill agriculture to minimize fertilizer use and runoff into streams and estuaries Sustainable actions to take in light of shrinking oil supplies: o Fully electric vehicles and recharging stations o Convenient public transportation o Walkways and paths for pedestrians and bicyclists o Improved fuelefficiency standards for automobiles Less biodiversity: o Likely to lose more biodiversity and ecosystem services o We can halt losses and reverse trends Conservation Preservation Habitat management To slow the loss of forests: o Reforestation o Enforce international treaties to prevent illegal logging o Buy wood products that are certified to have come from sustainably managed forests o Encourage sustainable harvest of nontimber products such as rubber Global human population o Birth and death rates have been declining for over 40 years o The global population is steadily getting smaller o More people and bigger footprints Population will grow We can limit growth We can reduce ecological footprint Conservation Improve efficiency Improving/maintaining wellbeing In 2011, human activities put 7.6 billion metric tons of greenhouse gasses (CO2e) into the atmosphere Understand challenges and how your actions affect them Continue to learn and improve understanding o Learn more o Translate your knowledge into understanding Reduce your “shoe size” of carbon footprint Be a leader in environmental change Leadership is action by someone that changes the behavior of others o Articulate a vision based on your values o Cultivate diversity o Focus on outcomes o Be humble and adaptable o Be confident, committed and hopeful
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