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The Environment, Week of April 11

by: Katrina Salamon

The Environment, Week of April 11 ENVT 0845-005

Katrina Salamon

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These are the notes for The Environment, the week of April 11.
The Environment
Dr. Udoeyo
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in The Environment

Popular in Professional Education Services

This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katrina Salamon on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENVT 0845-005 at Temple University taught by Dr. Udoeyo in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see The Environment in Professional Education Services at Temple University.


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Date Created: 04/17/16
Air Quality  Dispersion and deposition o Airflow patterns  Temperature inversion  Warm air forms above cold air, trapping pollutants near  ground  Height of emission   Time in atmosphere   Warm air is above the cold air   Troposphere: lowest layer   Stratosphere: second  Mesosphere  Thermosphere  Ionosphere  Exosphere  Pollution n troposphere  o Acid rain comes from nitric oxide and sulfur dioxide released from  electric power plants and motor vehicles o Heavy metal pollution  o Before 1920, smelters were primary source of atmospheric pollution o After 1930, they added lead into the fuel and that increased lead emissions hugely o The 1970 clean air act required that lead be removed   Pollution in stratosphere o No direct effect for human health o Can influence climate  Aerosols can cool earth’s surface o Alter sunlight reaching earth’s surface o Destroying the ozone   CFC (chlorofluorocarbon)  Indoor air pollution o More polluted than outside air o Tobacco smoke, building materials, furniture, ovens, etc. etc. etc.  o Combustion by­products   Carbon monoxide, nitrogen and sulfur oxides, VOCs, particulate  matter   Indoor burning, second h and smoke  Efforts to make buildings more energy efficient by reducing  ventilation can increase the concentrations of air pollution  o Worst indoor pollutant is second hand smoke (worse than actually  smoking) o Very common in developing countries from cooking   Case study of smokeless cooking   Asbestos o Fibrous material for heat/fire proofing  Breathing fibers leads to lung disease/cancer  Banned in 1973  Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC’s) emit substances that are unsafe to breathe,  like certain paints and other chemicals  Radon o Nontoxic gas produced from decay of radium­226  o Radon decays to radioactive isotopes o Bind to particulate matter  o When inhaled, causes cancer o The EP estimates exposure to radon causes 15­16,000 lung cancer deaths  each year in the US  Not significant outdoors  Indoor concentration may be 1,000X concentration  Radon levels can be reduced by sealing basement walls and floors,  installing check valves in drains, etc.   Pesticides  o Wide range of toxic chemicals o Many pesticides of the past now banned o Many stored in fatty tissues in the body  DDT, chlordane, pentachlorophenol  Between 1948­88, chlordane was injected into soils and cement  slabs beneath houses to control termites  Before 1980, PCP was used to treat foundation timbers and the  wood in log houses to prevent termites  No banned  Biological Contaminants  Buildup of virus, bacteria, fungi o Legionnaires’ disease  Bacterium that build up in air conditioning system   Transmitted in aerosol to hotel lobby   Many similar diseases occur   Policies to control air pollution changed substantially over 60 years   Legislation in 1963, 64, 67, 70, 90.   International air pollution policy o Agreements to limit air pollution among countries  o Driven by shared sense of need and cost sharing   Geneva convention on long range trans boundary air pollution­1983 o Led to protocols for reducing air pollution internationally   1999 protocol o Addressed acidification and ground level ozone  Montréal protocol on ozone o Aimed to reduce ozone destruction o Established timeline and protocols for diminishing pollution   Urban Ecosystems  Malmö, Sweden: Sweden’s Green City o Ancient prosperous city that started to decline in the 1980s o Rebuilt a sustainable city o Most of used energy is renewable o Parks and green spaces connected with green corridors  Early permanent human settlements located near supplies of food and resources o Some became cities  o Centers for trade and industry  Urbanization: the concentration of human populations in densely populated cities o Dependent on various factors like  Growth of food supply, market economies, water and waste  management, social and government structure   Ancient cities o Archeological evidence of the earliest permanent human settlements dates  from 15,000 years ago o Supported high population density  Division of labor  Centers for trade  Modern cities o 1750—industrial revolution o Urbanization increased o Only small amount of people produce food  Current trends o Urbanization still at rapid rate o 15% of people live in urban areas o 75% or higher in developed nations o In the US, 82% of people live in urban areas o Urban poor becoming major issue (“becoming”…? This has been a  problem) o Megacities  More than 10 million residents  Defining urban ecosystem o Urban: 500 + people/ sq. mile o Metropolitan   Large central city and adjacent communities  High degree of economic and social integration  Suburb might also be defined as a city if it has legally defined  boundaries and a government o Material flows  Require large inputs of material resources  Produce large outputs of waste  Urban climate o Significant climate change from rural to urban  Urban heat island effect  Cities warmer and less humid. The term heat island  describes metropolitan areas that are hotter than nearby  rural areas  Pronounced at night an in the wnter due to the slow release  of heat from urban infrastructure o Four characteristics drive   Less vegetation  Sealed surfaces (cement)  Complex 3D structure buildings and street canyons that trap heat  Sources produce heat and pollutants that trap heat  Urban hydrology o Impervious surface cover (ISC)—percentage of land covered with sealed  surfaces (concrete, asphalt, rooftops) o Reduces drainage and infiltration o Diminishes the infiltration of storm water, increasing runoff o Diminishes water quality   Urban population distribution o Suburban land use increasing  o Population growth o Changing patterns of development o Urban sprawl (widespread growth of land included in a metropolitan area)  Per capita land consumption (1950 ­0.18 acres, 2000 – 0.27 acres  Consequence of Urban Sprawl o Degrades human environments o Reduces biodiversity o Stresses infrastructure o Diminishes human health and well­being o Increased automobile traffic increases urban air pollution  o Sprawl and its associated dependency on the automobile discourage  physical activity   Urban plans and planning o Unites various disciplines to build environments and transportation  systems for urban communities  Engineering   Architecture  Ecology   Sociology o Bounding growth  Zoning   Urban growth boundaries (UGB’s)  Sustainable urban growth—sustainable only if a combination of 10 “smart  growth” strategies is employed (new urbanism) o Promote compact communities  o Mix land use o Create a range of housing o Roster communities that provide a sense of place o Conserve open space, farmland, natural beauty, and critical environmental  areas  o Strengthen existing community o Provide variety of transportation o Create walk­able neighborhoods o Make development decisions predictable, fair, and cost effective o Encourage community collaboration   Automobile dependency o Sprawl leads to automobiles, which in turn encourages sprawl  Balancing transportation options o Pedestrian oriented o Other forms of transportation   Urban wildlife o Widely dispersed and tolerant of a wide array of environments o Invasive trees do well   Efficient capture and use of energy and matter o City metabolism—recycle  o  What does the future hold? o Scarce resources will become scarcer o Biodiversity will decrease o Warmer climates  Global warming   We can diminish the magnitude of warming with a combination of  actions o We can diminish the consequences through adaptation  Conservation of biodiversity  Increasing resilience  Reducing greenhouse gas emissions o We can accelerate transition to more efficient use of resources   To conserve water: o Wetland restoration to filter pollutants and restore water flow o Recycling urban water use o Water metering and pricing as incentives to prevent wast o No­till agriculture to minimize fertilizer use and runoff into streams and  estuaries   Sustainable actions to take in light of shrinking oil supplies: o Fully electric vehicles and recharging stations o Convenient public transportation o Walkways and paths for pedestrians and bicyclists  o Improved fuel­efficiency standards for automobiles   Less biodiversity: o Likely to lose more biodiversity and ecosystem services o We can halt losses and reverse trends  Conservation  Preservation  Habitat management  To slow the loss of forests: o Reforestation o Enforce international treaties to prevent illegal logging o Buy wood products that are certified to have come from sustainably  managed forests o Encourage sustainable harvest of non­timber products such as rubber  Global human population o Birth and death rates have been declining for over 40 years o The global population is steadily getting smaller o More people and bigger footprints  Population will grow  We can limit growth   We can reduce ecological footprint  Conservation  Improve efficiency  Improving/maintaining well­being  In 2011, human activities put 7.6 billion metric tons of greenhouse gasses (CO2e)  into the atmosphere  Understand challenges and how your actions affect them  Continue to learn and improve understanding o Learn more o Translate your knowledge into understanding  Reduce your “shoe size” of carbon footprint  Be a leader in environmental change  Leadership is action by someone that changes the behavior of others o Articulate a vision based on your values o Cultivate diversity o Focus on outcomes  o Be humble and adaptable o Be confident, committed and hopeful


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