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Psychology Week 12 Notes

by: Meagan

Psychology Week 12 Notes Psych 2010

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About this Document

These notes cover what will be on exam 4.
Introduction to Psychology
Aimee A Callender
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meagan on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 2010 at Auburn University taught by Aimee A Callender in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 04/17/16
Social Psychology  Stanford Prison Experiment o Unethical o Some think not a good representation of how people would act in this situation o Factors that contributed to guards behavior  Know they could get away with it  Conformity  Wanting to do right by the experiment o Factors that reduce these behaviors  Set of norms  Guard oversight  Consequences o Are the results of the study generalizable?  Not really o Factors that limit generalizability  Critique of Stanford Prison Experiment  Political climate (selective sample)  Demand Characteristics o Feel like supposed to behave in particular way o Guards told how to treat prisoners o What if told opposite purpose?  Boring experiment, just watch, nothing would really happen  Is this really how “normal college students would act? o No (probably not) o Overall, behavior could occur but factors could have impacted that behavior  Working in Groups o Social loafing  Reduced effort by individual when in a group  Low productivity in groups  Cheering study  Put people in a sound proof room, see how much noise they can make together and alone, usually when told they are alone they are louder  When working alone they put in more effort o Preventing social loafing  Allow somebody to feel responsible o Group polarization  Seen in strong opinion groups  Ex: politics  When like-minded people together = one end of spectrum (extreme) o Groupthink  More concerned with an agreed solution rather than a good decision  Concurrence favored over critical thinking  High group cohesiveness  Challenger explosion  Lot of pressure to go into space that morning because of publicity; cold weather (o ring may not hold); went anyway and it exploded  Social Cognition: Understanding People o Person perception  How people perceive and understand each other  Naïve Psychologists  Assess others by observing behavior  First impressions/ initial judgments  Biases and shortcuts (how they treat us/others, appearance) o Limited information o Self-serving o Impression Formation (first impressions)  What information is used?  Appearance o Attractiveness Bias  Intelligent, competent, sociable, moral  Ex: teachers rate attractive child as smart and higher achieving o Baby Face Bias  Big eyes, small snout  Naïve, helpless, kind, honest, warm  Ex: Disney characters  Schemas and Stereotypes o Stereotypes  Categorization based on group membership  Simplifies judgements (shortcut)  Lead to mistakes in judgements  Inaccurate Stereotypes  Based on: o What others tell us (no experience) o Illusory Correlations = find someone who confirms stereotype  Overuse Stereotypes  Grouping leads us to: o Overestimate similarities within groups  Particularly for outgroup o Overestimates differences between groups  Self-Perpetuating  Confirmation Bias o Look for evidence that confirms our beliefs (perceptual confirmation)  Self-fulfilling prophecy o Observers bring about what they expect to perceive o Stereotype threat  Fear of confirming an observer’s stereotype  A Class Divided o Make children discriminate against one another by saying blue eyes are better than brown eyes; then changing it later to do a different scenario  Explicit = we are aware of stereotype (less problematic)  Public = willing to tell people about it  Private = not willing to admit it to others  Implicit = not aware of holding stereotype  Leads to unconscious discrimination  Eliminating Stereotype  Training – decrease explicit  Interaction – decrease implicit o Increase positive feelings towards individuals, reduce negative feelings toward group  Behavior o Judgements (inferences) about the causes of behavior o Attributions  Situational  Inference based on something about the particular situation  Dispositional  Inference based on personal factors like disposition, personality, attitudes  Stable  Permanent (Intelligence, unfair teacher)  Unstable  Temporary (mood and weather)  Biases in Attributions  Mistakes in determining causes of own behavior and others’ behavior  Correspondence Bias o Aka fundamental attribution error o Watch someone else make dispositional attributions  Actor-Observer Effect o Self-serving bias  Make dispositional if positive and if bad blame other factor  Explaining Attribution Bias  Visual-Orientation Hypothesis o Others – focus on person o Self – focus on environment  Attraction o Proximity (closer you are to someone; like them and think attractive)  Mere Exposure Effect  4 equally attractive women attended class 0,5,10,15 times  Rated attractiveness  Higher for those who attended class 10 or 15 times o Familiarity breeds contempt (fondness)  Physical Attractiveness  Studies: physical attractiveness is most important factor in initial attraction  What is considered attractive?  Beauty in only (much more than) skin deep  Symmetrical faces (good genes)  Inverted triangles (man’s body shape means significant testosterone)  Hourglass (woman’s body shape means significant estrogen)  Look for presence of fertility and lack of genetic mutation  Birds of a feather (do) flock together  Similarity o Attitudes, beliefs, interests, age, religion, race, education, intelligence, economic status o Validate our own beliefs/who we are o Attitude Alignment  Over time, attitudes become more similar  Opposites attract (repel)  Passionate Love vs. Companionate Love o Passionate Love  Complete absorption, sexual feelings, intense emotion  Emotions: arousal + cognitive appraisal  Aroused  higher ratings of attraction o Companionate Love (qualitatively different)  Warm, trusting, deep, affectionate attachment, lives are deeply intertwined  Intimacy-warmth and closeness  Commitment-intent maintain relationship  Even when passionate loves diminishes love is still present  Why do relationships fail?  Social exchange o Perceive a favorable cost/benefit ratio  Comparison level o Could the ratio be better somewhere else?  With another person, might not know them as well  Equity in cost/benefit between partners o Want fairness  Time and effort in the relationship


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