Psychology Week 12 Notes
Psychology Week 12 Notes Psych 2010
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meagan on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 2010 at Auburn University taught by Aimee A Callender in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/17/16
Social Psychology Stanford Prison Experiment o Unethical o Some think not a good representation of how people would act in this situation o Factors that contributed to guards behavior Know they could get away with it Conformity Wanting to do right by the experiment o Factors that reduce these behaviors Set of norms Guard oversight Consequences o Are the results of the study generalizable? Not really o Factors that limit generalizability Critique of Stanford Prison Experiment Political climate (selective sample) Demand Characteristics o Feel like supposed to behave in particular way o Guards told how to treat prisoners o What if told opposite purpose? Boring experiment, just watch, nothing would really happen Is this really how “normal college students would act? o No (probably not) o Overall, behavior could occur but factors could have impacted that behavior Working in Groups o Social loafing Reduced effort by individual when in a group Low productivity in groups Cheering study Put people in a sound proof room, see how much noise they can make together and alone, usually when told they are alone they are louder When working alone they put in more effort o Preventing social loafing Allow somebody to feel responsible o Group polarization Seen in strong opinion groups Ex: politics When like-minded people together = one end of spectrum (extreme) o Groupthink More concerned with an agreed solution rather than a good decision Concurrence favored over critical thinking High group cohesiveness Challenger explosion Lot of pressure to go into space that morning because of publicity; cold weather (o ring may not hold); went anyway and it exploded Social Cognition: Understanding People o Person perception How people perceive and understand each other Naïve Psychologists Assess others by observing behavior First impressions/ initial judgments Biases and shortcuts (how they treat us/others, appearance) o Limited information o Self-serving o Impression Formation (first impressions) What information is used? Appearance o Attractiveness Bias Intelligent, competent, sociable, moral Ex: teachers rate attractive child as smart and higher achieving o Baby Face Bias Big eyes, small snout Naïve, helpless, kind, honest, warm Ex: Disney characters Schemas and Stereotypes o Stereotypes Categorization based on group membership Simplifies judgements (shortcut) Lead to mistakes in judgements Inaccurate Stereotypes Based on: o What others tell us (no experience) o Illusory Correlations = find someone who confirms stereotype Overuse Stereotypes Grouping leads us to: o Overestimate similarities within groups Particularly for outgroup o Overestimates differences between groups Self-Perpetuating Confirmation Bias o Look for evidence that confirms our beliefs (perceptual confirmation) Self-fulfilling prophecy o Observers bring about what they expect to perceive o Stereotype threat Fear of confirming an observer’s stereotype A Class Divided o Make children discriminate against one another by saying blue eyes are better than brown eyes; then changing it later to do a different scenario Explicit = we are aware of stereotype (less problematic) Public = willing to tell people about it Private = not willing to admit it to others Implicit = not aware of holding stereotype Leads to unconscious discrimination Eliminating Stereotype Training – decrease explicit Interaction – decrease implicit o Increase positive feelings towards individuals, reduce negative feelings toward group Behavior o Judgements (inferences) about the causes of behavior o Attributions Situational Inference based on something about the particular situation Dispositional Inference based on personal factors like disposition, personality, attitudes Stable Permanent (Intelligence, unfair teacher) Unstable Temporary (mood and weather) Biases in Attributions Mistakes in determining causes of own behavior and others’ behavior Correspondence Bias o Aka fundamental attribution error o Watch someone else make dispositional attributions Actor-Observer Effect o Self-serving bias Make dispositional if positive and if bad blame other factor Explaining Attribution Bias Visual-Orientation Hypothesis o Others – focus on person o Self – focus on environment Attraction o Proximity (closer you are to someone; like them and think attractive) Mere Exposure Effect 4 equally attractive women attended class 0,5,10,15 times Rated attractiveness Higher for those who attended class 10 or 15 times o Familiarity breeds contempt (fondness) Physical Attractiveness Studies: physical attractiveness is most important factor in initial attraction What is considered attractive? Beauty in only (much more than) skin deep Symmetrical faces (good genes) Inverted triangles (man’s body shape means significant testosterone) Hourglass (woman’s body shape means significant estrogen) Look for presence of fertility and lack of genetic mutation Birds of a feather (do) flock together Similarity o Attitudes, beliefs, interests, age, religion, race, education, intelligence, economic status o Validate our own beliefs/who we are o Attitude Alignment Over time, attitudes become more similar Opposites attract (repel) Passionate Love vs. Companionate Love o Passionate Love Complete absorption, sexual feelings, intense emotion Emotions: arousal + cognitive appraisal Aroused higher ratings of attraction o Companionate Love (qualitatively different) Warm, trusting, deep, affectionate attachment, lives are deeply intertwined Intimacy-warmth and closeness Commitment-intent maintain relationship Even when passionate loves diminishes love is still present Why do relationships fail? Social exchange o Perceive a favorable cost/benefit ratio Comparison level o Could the ratio be better somewhere else? With another person, might not know them as well Equity in cost/benefit between partners o Want fairness Time and effort in the relationship
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