Chapter 15 textbook notes
Chapter 15 textbook notes 1300-03
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melissa Kaufman on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1300-03 at Tulane University taught by John Hall in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Sociology at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 04/17/16
Chapter 15 textbook notes Consensual Crime Major consensual crimes: drug use, prostitution and pornography, and gambling major themes: consensual crime laws are arbitrary and inconsistent; laws against these crimes may cause more harm than good Consensual crime: also known as vice crimes, public order crimes, or victimless crimes -people do these things willingly More harm than good: 1. Increase police brutality/corruption, 2. Lead offenders to commit other crimes, 3. Create public disrespect for the law, 4. Divert efforts of fighting more serious crimes, 5. Prompt wiretapping and other violations of civil liberties, and 6. Provide revenue for organized crime Illegal Drug Use: most publicized consensual crimes in US Psychoactive drug: any substance that physiologically alters behavior by changing mood, emotion, perception and other mental states -“good drugs”: use is socially acceptable in our culture -“bad drugs”: use is not socially acceptable and they are illegal and we view these people in a negative light (much differently than we view those who use “good drugs”) -Alcohol, marijuana and tobacco most commonly used for 18-25 yr old population -Low percentages of illegal drug use translate into high numbers of actual people -Attribute drug use to economic decline, especially in urban areas -Drugs provide temporary relief, distract from people’s problems -Higher in areas of chronic joblessness and poverty=unstable families -Women engage in LESS illegal drug use than men -Both genders use these drugs for the similar reasons (economic instability, poverty, family issues, etc.) -Women more likely to use for depression, sexual abuse -Men more likely to use for excitement -Women more likely to use due to lack of money from lack of jobs -Women using during pregnancy viewed very poorly (term “crack babies”) What is the drug-crime connection? -Strong correlation between drug use and crimes -People using commit more crimes than people who don’t use drugs -Yet, most drug use is recreational and also committing crimes leads to drug use -Likely from economic issues and poor parenting the results are criminality and drug usage -Found that delinquency usually comes before drug usage -Interacting with other drug users causes more interaction with a criminal community (learn from them about crimes) -Most violence/crime is just a result of the fact that the drugs are illegal not from the drugs physiological effects Legalization Debate Philosophical side: in a democratic society people should be able to do whatever they want (even if it is self-destructive) and it is hypocritical for a society to determine which behaviors are allowed and what are not allowed Social-Scientific side: consensual crimes cause more harm than good Philosophical: decisions are more related to various political and social factors more than the harm from the drugs -Alcohol and tobacco kill more people a year than illegal drugs -Illegal drug deaths usually come from the drug being laced with other things Social Science: prohibition example, causing more violence and organized crime -Increases corruption due to bribes -Drug laws create the crime/problems they aim to prevent -Drugs would not be adulterated if they were legal -Expenses would be lower causing less robbery -Spend $50 billion annually on drug laws -Huge number of drug arrests -These laws cause organized crime -They could be taxed (adding to federal and state revenue) -Drug laws are more strictly enforced on minorities -Arresting for drug use usually involves wiretapping and other freedom- breaching measures -So easy to already get, legalizing wouldn’t necessarily increase numbers of users Harm Reduction: drug use is treated as a public health problem not as a crime, users don’t get treated as criminals instead they are seen as people who need help (saves money too) Drug Courts: sentence people to treatment and counseling as opposed to jails -Most prostitutes are women -Male prostitutes usually serve males -approx. 70,000 full time female prostitutes in the US -“immoral” -normal for men to take part but looking down upon for the female -women turn to prostitution for money (usually to provide for their drug habits) Sex trafficking: forcing women into prostitution or sexual slavery Pornography—how do you define what it is and isn’t? -censorship issues -those who favor it being banned say it is protecting society -degrading for women as they are portrayed as sexual objects violent porn: depicts sexual violence against women erotica: depicts respectful nudity and consensual loving sex between adults (book definition) -pornography linked to aggression and rape Gambling -85% of Americans say they’ve gambled at least once in their lives -gambling is becoming MORE legal -US is more tolerant of it -cities use casinos and such for needed revenue -Native Americans start them on their reservations -Religious groups are against gambling -exploit the poor and make their financial situation worse
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