Chapter 54: Behavioral Biology
Chapter 54: Behavioral Biology BIOL 1006
Popular in General Biology
Popular in Biology
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gina Nam on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1006 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Dr. Denbow in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
Reviews for Chapter 54: Behavioral Biology
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/17/16
Chapter 54: Behavioral Biology NATURAL HISTORY OF BEHAVIOR Behavior the way an organism responds to stimuli Two ways to analyze behavior o Proximate causation how? o Ultimate causation why? Or the evolutionary significance Behavior can be analyzed in terms of mechanisms o Physiology How the behavior is influenced by hormones, nerve cells, and other internal factors o Ontogeny How it develops in an individual o Phylogeny It origin in groups of related species o Adaptive significance role in survival and fitness Ethology emphasizes the Study of Instinct and its Origin o Innate behavior behaviors programmed and designed by genes, developmentally fixed triggered by a sign stimulus causes a fixed action pattern, or a sequence of actions carried out to completion used to prevent from wasting time o very little information is used, which can in turn lead to detrimental responses NERVE CELLS, NEUROTRANSMITTERS, HORMONES, AND BEHAVIOR Serotonin and dopamine are sometimes examined and connected to behavior BEHAVIORAL GENETICS Contribution that heredity makes to behavior o Nature vs. Nurture Some behaviors appear to be controlled by a single gene o Example from mice and the fosB gene If the fosB gene is disabled, then the female mice will ignore her young LEARNING Learning an alteration in behavior due to previous experience Several types: o Nonassociative learning learns the stimulus but does not connect it to the response Habitation decrease in response to a repeated stimulus with no positive or negative consequences Sensitization increased responsiveness to a stimulus o Associative learning changing or modifying a behavior by associating between two stimulus or a stimulus and a response Conditioning paired presentation between two different kinds of stimuli that causes the animal to form an association between them Also called Pavolvian conditioning Operant conditioning animal learns by associating behavioral response with a reward or punishment Skinner box Instinct o Innate predispositions toward forming certain associations DEVELOPMENT OF BEHAVIOR Parentoffspring interactions o Imprinting social attachments to parents (or similar) Happens during a sensitive or critical period during a young’s development Interaction between instinct and learning o Genetic templates are very selective during the critical period Ex. If a song bird hears a different song during its critical period then it will learn the wrong song ANIMAL COGNITION Process information and respond in a manner that suggests thinking ORIENTATION AND MIGRATION Taxis movement toward or away from a stimulus Kineses increase in general activity level due to increased stimulus intensity Migrations populations moving large distances Navigation and orientation o Navigation is the ability to set or adjust a bearing and follow it; changing course when lost o Orientation is the ability to keep going in one direction COMMUNICATION Courtship o Signaling is often restricted to the same species o Females are generally discriminating due to parental investment Communication enables information exchange among group members BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY Behavioral ecology is the study of how natural selection shapes behavior o Examines adaptive significance Foraging behavior o Getting the most food and minimizing the amount of energy used The optimal foraging theory Territoriality o Maintain exclusive use of an area containing a limited resource Made by a cost: benefit ratio REPRODUCTIVE STRATGIES AND SEXUAL SELECTION Mate choice individuals make decisions on mates based on quality and good genes Common in females Generally not pick the first male Parental investment contributions each sex makes in producing and rearing the offspring Sexual Selection o Sexes face different selective pressures Male fitness rarely limited by sperm count Sexual selection occurs through mate competition and mate choice o Intrasexual selection dominant male mates with many females (polygyny) Males compete for the opportunity to mate o Sperm competition Situation where females mate with multiple males o Intersexual selection interaction between members of different sex Mate choice Females choose males while males help rear the offspring or provide territories, nesting sites, food, and predator refuges Mating systems reflect ability of parents to care for offspring
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'