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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley Ruhe on Friday February 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 150A1 at University of Arizona taught by Shaun Nichols in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 107 views. For similar materials see Philosophical Perspectives on the Individual in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 02/13/15
Epistemology cont amp Berkeley 02142015 The evil genius can deceive you of everything but your existence Cogito ergo sum l I think therefore I am Descartes 2nd meditations quotI existquot 0 selfverifying just thinking it veri es it s truth you can t think if you don t exist Descartes foundation Method of subtraction Subtract things that could be the result of deception to determine one s nature Descartes must either explain why this method works for the self amp not other things or why it applies to all things Otherwise it doesn t make sense 0 Clarity principle l that which is clearly and distinctly perceived is certain Descartes legacy Goal of Meditations l to achieve a secure foundation 0 Attempts this by arguing for the existence of God then saying he would never deceive us 0 Most enduring legacy is one he never embraced l Cartesian skepticism courtesy of the evil genius amp dreaming arguments that show we can never have undoubtable knowledge of the external world BERKELEY Realism l there is a physical world outside our minds beyond what we can directly sense Descartes is a realist Cartesian skeptic can be a realist because a Cartesian skeptic merely says we do not have undoubtable knowledge not that it doesn t exist all together Representationalism l representational theory of the mind 0 Many ideas in your mind represent things in the world 0 Ex our perception of a computer represents a real computer Rationalistm l knowledge comes from reason Empiricism all knowledge amp ideas comes from experiences 0 The mind starts as a blank slate tabula rasa until we have expenences Empiricists impressed by progress in empirical sciences like physics 0 Elegantly simple Barkeley s Combats atheism amp skepticism Rejects realism representational theory of mind rationalism Embraces empiricism 0 Ideas are mental images that come from the senses or imagination Images not just visual ex smell taste 0 Imagination manipulates images Berkeley s master argument 0 Every object we think has this property The object is thought of Thus an object must be thought of to exist Or at least we cannot conceive mindindependent objects objects that don t exist 0 Argument doesn t work cause quotbeing thought ofquot is not an essential property of objects Idealism l there is no physical world just ideas amp minds 0 Ex what we perceive about an idea is all that exists not the table itself o Exists in your mind not the external world 0 NOT the evil genius argument God doesn t deceive us philosophers deceive us into thinking there s an external world 0 Berkeley supports this and says it provides evidence in a simpler way than Descarte s realism o Descarte God created the external world and our perception of the external world 0 Berkely Why would God also need to create the external world if all he needs to do is create our perception He only creates perception Philosophers have concluded that there s no more evidence to disregard idealism than realism Just because the argument for a theory is bad doesn t mean the theory itself is bad
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