Week 12 Notes
Popular in Life 103- Biology of Organisms
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by firstname.lastname@example.org Notetaker on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 103 at Colorado State University taught by Tanya Dewey in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Life 103- Biology of Organisms in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 04/17/16
Week 12 Notes Carbohydrates -no nutrients -4 calories per gram -waste: carbon dioxide and water -short term energy and storage Proteins -needed for amino acids -4 calories per gram -nitrogenous waste -used to build tissues and enzymes -provide energy -no storage Lipids -needed for fatty acids -9 calories per gram -used for energy and long-term storage Process of eating 1. Ingestion 2. Digestion 3. Absorption 4. Elimination Gastrovascular cavity input and output are the same Majority of animals have a complete digestive tract -digestive tract can be compartmentalized and specialized -food going in one whole and out a different hole aids in efficiency ability to continuously eat Large animals tend to be generalists (except koalas and anteaters just had to be rebels and go against the norm.) Specialists tend to be small herbivorous (like arthropods) or parasitic Modes of getting food Filter feeders Examples whales, sponges, basking and whale shark Substrate feeding -eat your environment Examples caterpillars and earthworms Exclusive carnivores Examples spiders, snakes, cephalopods, and salamanders Mammals choose what they eat Venom -immobilize prey -allows you to eat prey that’s bigger than you -short-tailed shrews are venomous Projectiles -eat prey that’s far away -if projectile has enough force, it can stun or immobilize prey -animals that use projectile tend to be slow moving -frogs and chameleons Herbivores -When plants are ripe, there is a lot of completion for the ripe fruits -some animals specialize in unripe fruits since there’s less competition. However, unripe fruits have toxins. So parrots eat dirt that gives them minerals that allows them to eat the unripe fruit Nectar -low in protein -animals that eat nectar also eat insects and pollen -Examples bats and hummingbirds Why are insects diverse? There is a coevolutionary arms race between plants and herbivorous insects Leaves -there’s lots of them -they’re easy to get -they’re low in nutrients -difficult to digest need symbiotic bacteria, protozoans, and fungi Omnivore -opportunistic Carnivores and omnivores have a simple gut Herbivores have a very specialized gut -Foregut fermenters enlarged stomach that harbor bacteria -Hindgut fermenters enlarged caecum that harbor bacteria Gut biodiversity is linked to -nutrient absorption -obesity -autoimmune disorders -mental health Circulation Exchange with the environment is at the cellular level As volume increases, the surface area decreases Simple multicellular and unicellular organisms are able to exchange directly with the environment. Bigger organisms aren’t able to do this. Instead, they have internal and protected surface areas 3 basic components of the circulatory system 1. Circulatory fluid carries nutrients, oxygen, and waste 2. Vessels fluid transport 3. Pump use metabolic energy to generate pressure to move fluids 4. These 3 components are in both closed and open circulatory systems Closed Circulatory system -in vertebrates, annelids, and cephalopods -circulatory fluid (blood) and interstitial fluids are separated -Blood is pumped through the vessels via the heart -metabolicly expensive, but more efficient at supplying oxygen to tissues Open Circulatory system -metabolicly cheaper -lower pressure means less efficiency Arteries carry blood away from the heart Capillaries site of exchange with gas, wastes, and nutrients Veins carry blood to the heart Single Circulatory system -Ray finned fish, sharks, and rays have this (ectothermic and poikilothermic) -single pump -one atrium that receives the blood -one ventricle that pumps the blood out of the heart -oxygenation of blood occurs in the gills Double Circulatory System -frogs and the majority of reptiles -double circulatory evolved for the ability to colonize land -2 atria that receive blood into the heart -one ventricle that pumps blood out of the heart -there is mixing of blood less efficient -Pulmonary circuit where blood is oxygenated -lungs, skin, and gills -also where gas exchange occurs -higher blood pressure and higher flow -Systemic circuit brings blood to the atrium Double Circulatory System -mammals and birds -2 atria -2 ventricle -Pulmonary circuit is in the lungs -No mixing of blood more efficient -the two sides of the heart are completely separated -higher metabolic rates and endothermic Blood carries oxygen via reversible oxygen binding proteins Hemoglobin (vertebrates) iron is in the blood cells -can pick up a max of four oxygen molecules when the oxygen level is high -releases oxygen molecules when oxygen level is low Hemocyanin (crustaceans and some molluscs) copper is in the blood. When it oxygenates, the blood turns blue Lungs have an affinity for oxygen. They pick up carbon dioxide and donate oxygen (aka cellular respiration) Bohr effect explains the reversible nature of hemoglobin Low carbon dioxide in environment high oxygen concentration Systematic circuit -lower oxygen affinity -low saturation Arteries -take blood from heart -thick layer of smooth muscle and connective tissue -get smaller as they get closer to capillary beds Capillary beds -where gas exchange and diffusion occurs -small and thin can’t handle pressure Veins -take blood back to the heart -little pressure since its far from the heart -valves prevent backflow of blood and allow the veins to move blood without pressure Surface area -small in arteries and veins -large in capillary beds Velocity -highest in arteries -drops close to zero in capillary beds -picks up a little bit in veins Pressure -highest in arteries -low in capillary beds -doesn’t regain pressure in veins
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