Week 2 Notes - CLAS 202
Week 2 Notes - CLAS 202 CLAS 202
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex Tucker on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CLAS 202 at University of Oregon taught by Jaeger M in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Roman Life & Culture in Classical Studies at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 04/17/16
The Etruscans (Day 3) 4/4/16 - Early Dates - 1000 BCE = earliest signs of settlement on Capitoline; earliest known tombs in Forum Valley - 900 BCE = beginning of permanent settlement on Palatine - 753 BCE = “founding” by Romulus - 600 CE = Etruscan domination - Who Were the Etruscans? - Tyrsenoi - Tyrrheni - Etrusci - Two Theories More Likely More Fascinating - Indigenous Italian people related to - Came from East (Lydia) Villanovans - Herodotus 1.94 tells story of - Art & architecture shows Greek & Tyrrhenus Phoenician influence - Linguistic Evidence - Etruscan is related to neither Latin or Greek - Only “related” language is a pre-Greek dialect of Lemnos - Sources for the language - ~ 9,000 epigraphics texts (some are bilingual) - w/ Greek @ Dephi, w/ Punic @ Pyrgi (Italy) - linen book preserved in binding of Egyptian mummy - glosses & loan-words - Loan-words: Etruscan Latin - Satelles “bodyguard”; from zatla θ “axe-bearer” - Some Etruscan words are theatrical: - Histro (actor); Etruscan - Scaena (stage); Greek Etruscan Latin - Persona (character); perhaps Etruscan - Our knowledge of Etruscans comes from material culture, mostly, from tombs - A Socially Lively Afterlife - What was the position of women during life? - Some married women kept their own names The Etruscans (Day 3) 4/4/16 - Wealthy, esp. 800 – 500 BCE - Rich in mineral resources (iron & silver) - Agricultural fertility - At Rome: Pantheon - Construction of Hadrian (ruled 117 – 138 AD) - Volterra, Porta all’ Arco - 4 C. BCE - Etruscan insignia, used by the consuls - Toga Praetexa - Sella Curulius (curvle chair) - Fasces - Seven Etruscan Kings (of Rome) - Romulus - Numa Pompilius - Tullus Hostilius - Ancus Marcius - L. Tarquinius Priscus (Tarquin the First) - Servius Tullius - L. Tarquinius Superbus (Tarquin the Proud) - Last Three Kings - Tarquin the First - Lucomo (son) - Servius Tullius - Tarquin the Proud - Lucomo: who is he? - What is his background? - Who is his father? - Demaratus of Corinth - Refugee from political upheaval - “happens” to settle in Tarquinii - marries into local family - has 2 sons - is careless about making will - Descendants of Demaratus - Lucomo - Tarquin the Proud - Sextus Tarquinius - Arruns - Egerius - Collatinus The Etruscans (Day 3) 4/4/16 - Where does he come from? - Tarquinii - What is his character? - Livy calls him: vir impiger ac divitiis potens; “an ambitious man, powerful on account of his wealth.” And a man “desirous of honor” - What is new about his story? - How he comes to Rome - Lucomo comes from the N. (Tarquinii) - Livy carefully says that Lucomo is on the Janiculum when omen appears - Also notes his entering the city - In 1.33, Livy described how Ancus decided to include the Janiculum in city by means of a wall & bridge - Lucomo must enter the city by the Pons Sublicius, Rome’s first bridge - 1 king to campaign - adds 100 supporters to Senate - What is familiar about his story? - Refugee / foreign family - Ambition beyond social class - Religious omens accompany him - His accomplishments - War against Sabines (triumph) - War against Prisci Latini - Continued building wall - Drained Forum by sewers - Built foundations of a temple of Jupiter on the Capitoline - Strangest element of all: - Tanaquil Revolution & the Ideal Roman Woman (Day 4) 4/6/16 - Livy’s Preface - “I invite the reader’s attention to the much more serious consideration of the kind of lives our ancestors lived, of who were the men, and what the means both in politics and war by which Rome’s power was first acquired and subsequently expanded”. - “I would then have him trace the process of our moral decline”. - History = a record of infinite variety of human experience plainly set out for all to see; & in that record you can find for yourself & our country both examples & warnings; fine things to take as models; base things, rotten through & through, to avoid. - Pre-Roman Women in Livy - Aeneas & Antenor were spared because they were champions of peace, & of giving back Helen. - Aeneas marries Lauinia; after his death she serves as regent for their son Ascanius. - Livy is unsure who is Ascanius’ mother, Lavinia or the Trojan, Creusa. - Livy 1.3 on Lavinia - Aeneas’ son, Ascanius, was still too young for a position of authority; Lavinia, however, was a woman of great character & acted as regent until Ascanius came of age & was able to assume power as the successor of his father & grandfather [Latinus]. - Livy 1.4 on Rhea Silvia - Vestial Virgin was raped & gave birth to twin boys. Mars, she declared was their father. - Livy 1.4 on Laurentia - Faustulus took them to his hut & gave them to his wife Laurentia to nurse. Some think that the origin of this fable was the fact that Laurentia was a common whore & was called Wolf by the shepards. - Tarquin & Tanaquil - “and to Tanaquil, the indignity of his position soon became intolerable…” - “Tanaquil had no difficulty in persuading her husband: he was already set upon improving his position” Revolution & the Ideal Roman Woman (Day 4) 4/6/16 - The Eagle Omen - Servius’ head in flames - Tanaquil - Urges husband to go to Rome - Interprets omen of eagle & Servius’ head bursting into flame - Hides news of Tarquin’s death - Tells Servius to seize throne - Gives speech (uncommon) - What is different about this last act? - Tanaquil addresses public - Opens upper window & gives speech calming crowd - Livy marks this w/ specific topographical details - Temple of Jupiter Stator - New Street - Tullia - Tarquin marries older Tullia (good sister) - Arruns marries younger Tullia (bad sister) - They Strike - Tarquin forces his way into forum - Takes king’s chair in front of Senate House & summons Senate - Servius accosts him “in the forecourt of the Curia” - Mob rushes Senate House - Tarquin carries Servius down steps & throws him into street - Servius is assassinated while making his way back to palace - “at the top of Cyprus Street, where the shrine of Diana stood until recently, her driver was turning to the right to climb the Urbian hill on the way to the Esquiline, when he pulled up short in sudden terror and pointed to Servius’ body lying mutilated on the road”. Revolution & the Ideal Roman Woman (Day 4) 4/6/16 - “Blood from the corpse stained her clothes and spattered the carriage, so that a grim relic of the murdered man was brought by those gory wheels to the house where she and her husband lived”. - Back to Tanaquil - Is she good or bad, an example to imitate or avoid? - Good, but an example to avoid - How are Tanaquil & Tullia connected? - mother-in-law & daughter-in-law - also connected through literary devices - repetition - recollection - Offspring of Demaratus st - Lucumo (Tarquin the 1 ) - Tarquin the Proud - Sextus Tarquinius (+2 brothers) - Arruns (died young) - Egerius (born after father’s death) - Collatinus - Lucius Junius Brutus - Son of king’s sister, Tarquinia - Lucretia summons: - Father, Lucretius, who comes w/ Valerius - Husband, Collatinus, who comes w/ Brutus Familia & Nomenclature (Day 5) 4/8/16 - Familia: The Roman Household - Patriarchal - Male-oriented - Economic - Patria Potestas - Breakdown of meaning: - Patria = “of a father”; potestas = “power” - “a father’s power” - Extended over - Blood-descendants in familia - Slaves - Wife, sometimes … son’s wives - Scope - Execute - Marry / divorce - Control property - Marriage Involved Property - Dowry – Who owns it? - Inheritances – Who gets it? - The power of a husband or his paterfamilias over a wife - Manus literally “hand” - Cato the Elder, quoted by Livy (34.2.11) - “Our ancestors wanted women to be in the manus of their parents, brothers, husbands!” - Marriages with manus - Confarreatio: eating a cake of far (emmer wheat) together - Coemptio: ritual purchase - Usus: “use” or “enjoyment” (common-law marriage) - Manus gave the wife the legal status of a daughter - Come w/ certain inheritance privileges - Within the familia the wife would be in position of a daughter, including as a heir. - Familia - Economic unit - Property in control of paeterfamilias - Familia under authority of paeterfamilias - Control over property & persons = patria potestas - Nomenclature: What’s in a Name? - Cato the Elder = Cato Maior Familia & Nomenclature (Day 5) 4/8/16 - M. Porcius Cato - Cicero, “Tully” = M. Tullius Cicero - M. Tullius M.t. Cor. Cicero - M. = Marcus (praenomen); before name - Tullius (nomen, gentilicum); name of clan - M.f. = Marcifilus (“son of Marcus”) - Cor. = Cornelius (of the Cornelian tribe) - Cicero (cognomen); surname - Nomen - Italic peoples probably only used one name originally. - Hostus - Tullus - Quintus (“male child born in fifth month”) - They then added patronymics - -ius suffix - Hostius = “son of Hostus” - Hostus Hostius, Hostus Hostilius, Tullius Hostilius, Servius Tullius - Cornelius = “son of Cornelus” - Became fixed, around 700 BCE - Nomen indicated membership in a gens - Praenomina - Popular ones = Gaius, Lucius, Marcus, Publius, Quintus - “Ubi tu es Gaius, ibi ego Gaia” (John / Jane Doe) - Cognomen (pl. cognomina) - Used to designate individuals within gens - Became hereditary - Included Scipiones, Cossi, Dolabellae, Lentuli, Sullae - How Were Cognomina Acquired? - Physical characteristics (not usually complementary) - Calvus - Balbus - Rufus - Crassus - Legumes - Lentulus - Piso - Cicero - Fabius - Conquered people - Africanus Familia & Nomenclature (Day 5) 4/8/16 - Messalla - Numidicus - Asiaticus - Germanicus - Brittanicus - Act of manliness - Torquatus - Capitolinus - Mucius Scaevola - Women’s Names - Cornelia - Sempronia - Tullia - Julia - Livia - Adoptive Names - Son took adoptive father’s name - Could keep old gentile name as adjective (-ianus) - Slave Names - Marcipor Marci puer boy of Marcus - Some Confusion is Inevitable - Man named Tiberius Claudius Nero had 2 sons - Tiberius Claudius Nero & Nero Claudius Drusus - TCN was adopted & became Tiberius Iulius Caesar Agustus (was emperor Tiberius) - NCD had a son (Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus) - One of NCDG’s sons was Gaius Iulius Caesar Germanicus; emperor Gaius or Caligula Tiberius - NCD also had a second son, Claudius Nero Germanicus (emperor Claudius) - Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus & Iulia Agrippina had a son (L. Domitius Ahenobarbus Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar or Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus); emperor Nero
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