Week 5 Language in Culture and Society
Week 5 Language in Culture and Society ANTH 1004
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Chadwick on Friday February 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1004 at George Washington University taught by Dent in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 179 views. For similar materials see Language in Culture and Society in anthropology, evolution, sphr at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/13/15
Tuesday February 10 2015 ANTH 1004 Week 5 Lecture 1 Animal communication Chimp learns sign language Patterson Works with a gorilla called Cocoa and Michael Critics of the animal language said animals are not creative in sign use they cannot make up new signs for things they have not experienced Patterson claims Cocoa can do this ex finger bracelet ring People say animals cannot employ displacement using signs to refer to something not in the immediate context Patterson claims that Cocoa can and that Michael is telling a whole story about his capture Patterson claims that Cocoa carries out elaborate deceptions constantly telling jokes Critics say that animals left to their own devices won t sign will only do it if there is a reward Patterson claims that Cocoa signs when no one is around Critics respond with the CleverHans phenomenon Trainers cue critters people claim Patterson is doing this People think Patterson is overanalyzing her data and that she is making it up no one else has ever gotten these results Animal language as a contested idea We tend to athropomoratize to animals we give them human actions and thoughts Children s books and nature tv shows When we do this not in the context of research much of the data we collect is projected by us do this with children as well Tuesday February 10 2015 Animal language is not clearly defined in any scholarly literature Roger Foughst s definition shared thought in a social context Too broad of a definition Words and grammar Too narrow of a definition Behaviorists Believe that animals may only be able to learn in a rudimentary way but it can be taught Sociolinguists Claim that animals do not have language and cannot learn it Anthropological view of language Experiments seek to teach language to nonhuman primates and then compare that capacity to human language functioning need to compare to children All teaching is being done by humans Trying to figure out how nonhuman primates evolve and how did humans evolve after that When sociolinguists look at experiments comparing to children they are classified as a failure because Children are able to transfer language skills in one context to another They are able to generate new sentences from what they know transferring Children have a high level of creativity by 20 months Almost no creativity happening within the animal language experiments Animals can put sequences together in specific contexts very limited transfer Sequences being applied are in highly demarcated sequences highly controlled Training these simple sequences in animals take forever kids learn to talk around 18 months You get almost no sense that outside of the particular context languages cannot take these ideas into different contexts Tuesday February 10 2015 Syntax grammar the rules governing the combination of meaningful elements Animals showed little capacity for grammar Child syntax rules none of this happening in animals Coordination Ex using the and clause Complementation One sentence takes the role as the object of another sentence Relativization Occurs when one sentence modifies a noun in the other Clauses We can imbed clauses within each other Children are able to divide words into subsections into different categories based on how they sound Duality of pattering Reflection that signs are composed of sounds Very little evidence that animals have this What we get in this experiment Animals can learn specific signs for something no real sense that these signs could be broken down into subcomponent levels Routine structures how children learn Ex pajamas and bedtimes Animals never get beyond the routine structures There is very little experiments of metalanguage that show how we communicate We objectify the language going on around you Sue SavageRumbow Has an expert way of mimicking nonhuman primate sounds Tuesday February 10 2015 Argues that the instruments that we have to do more research are primitives Specification ideas humans are better We have a very little idea of whats going on in the wild Develop better instruments Get out in the wild and look at how animals re using stuff there Should be looking at the differences between animal and human speech in a qualitative and not quantitatively
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