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The Long Civil Rights movement

by: Johnson Womack

The Long Civil Rights movement HIST 222

Marketplace > University of Tennessee - Knoxville > History > HIST 222 > The Long Civil Rights movement
Johnson Womack
GPA 3.08

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About this Document

This talks about Native Americans rights, Prison Riots and the Black Power movement and how it spawned on much more.
History of the United States, 1877 to Present
Dr. Julie Reed
Class Notes
Nixon, Indians, civil rights
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Johnson Womack on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 222 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Julie Reed in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see History of the United States, 1877 to Present in History at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


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Date Created: 04/17/16
4­11­16 The Long Civil Rights Movement Legacy of Plessey v Ferguson  Jim Crow: Created economic discrimination. There was a constant fear that African Americans had. There were powers that people  could get. WWII led many African Americans to not accept the way things were. This was a long  time in the making. They had been working to have equal access to school and much  more. They weren’t going to accept second­class status. Brown v board of Education (1954) Sustained efforts 1930s­1950s NAACP Thurgood Marshall and Constance Baker Motley fought the system through courts. She  got sent in to areas of the south that she is someone who can move through spaces who  wouldn’t get a lot of torment. LULAC “All deliberate speed” (1955) Southern States Southern Manifesto Response to brown v Board “All deliberate speed” (1955) Southern States Southern Manifesto Implementing integration  Little Rock (September 1957): 9 African Americans came through there. These women  had the National Guard, and then they had none. Norfolk, Virginia (1958­59): They attempted avoidance rather than confrontation. They  had local school districts close in order to resist integration. 4 high schools and 3 junior  high schools were closed, but then private high schools were being used. 6% of African Americans attended integrated schools. By 1973, it went up to 90% Swann v. Charlotte Mecklenburg (1971): The last Supreme Court case to address  desegregation in schools. This case upheld the use of busing to achieve integration. 83%  of people refused busing sometimes for waking up early. Higher education: Change was slow to universities. 1956: University of Alabama attempted to integrate ____ but then expelled her. University of Mississippi (September, 1962): James Meredith University of Alabama (1968):  Civil Rights – Political and Economic actions ­ SCLC o Birmingham, Alabama 1963  This was a local and focused strategy  April of 1963 was when a sit in happened o Bull Connor, Public Safety Commissioner o MLK, Jr. “Letter from Birmingham City Jail” o Sixteenth Street Baptist Church Bombing  4 children were killed ­ March on Washington o August 28, 1963 o 250,000 o MLK, JR. “I Have a Dream” speech.  This helped the Brooklyn dodgers have Jackie Robinson on the  team. Multi­faceted Civil Rights actions SNCC & SCLC Voter registration Drive Freedom Schools Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) March from Selma 7500 marchers Voting Rights Act (1965) The promise of Kennedy vs. the will of Johnson Kennedy Assassination of Dallas, 1963 Kennedy National Service Corp Youth Conservation Corp Education and Job Training Lyndon Johnson Voting Rights Act (1965) The War on Poverty Office of Economic Opportunity Job Corp Neighborhood Youth Corp Volunteers in Service in Service to America Community Action Agencies ­ 500 Agencies provided help. ­ Segregation not only deprived but also distracted white southerners to their own  plights and difficulties. War on Two Fronts ­ Poverty ­ Civil Rights ­ Civil rights Act 1964 ­ Equal Opportunity Employment Commission (EEOC) The Great Society ­ Elementary and Secondary education act ­ Higher education act ­ Medical care act o Medicare o Medicaid o Appalachian Regional development Act ­ What is a win in the war on poverty? ­ Did Johnson make a dent? 4­13­16 Democracy & Self­Determination Vietnam war is from 1965­1973 2.5 Million African­Americans from farms moved to Northern cities in the ‘50’s & 60’s.  Domestic and social concerns of African Americans as well as other minorities to other  incidents. When the war is feeding upon itself, there are social justice struggles popping up. Cities are often where discontent is being associated. It is consistent with changes that are happening. Many unionized jobs were the ideas that the farmers didn’t have access to. Cities ­ Concentrated Poverty ­ Failing infrastructure o Many of the urban centers drew block by block and there was  depreciation. There are many people that are attempting to address civil  rights issues more broadly. o Bridges, water mains and Fires stations were 150 years old and were  wearing out by the 60’s and the 70’s. The elevated west Coast side  highway near the Hudson River had to be closed down due to chunks fell  out onto the roadways. o Utilities and transportation systems were subject to large market forces  and public policy. ­ Central concerns: o Cost of living o Unemployment o Education Long hot summer, 1964 ­ Context: People were dissatisfied with the pace at social justice issues being  implemented. o Unemployment was still high despite civil rights changes and there was  discontent from police. o Riots in Rochester, Brooklyn and Harlem broke out in July of this year.  This led to 4 years of violence due to dissatisfaction of how civil rights  laws were being implemented. o 200 people were killed in every riot that happened with the majority being  African Americans. o Politicians, instead of addressing the issues of the minorities blamed it on  Riff­Raff and outside agitators. These were neighborhood residents. They  weren’t always completely representing their neighborhoods because  many of them were young people. ­ OAAU: Organization of Afro American Union (1964). o Malcolm X formed it after bitterly leaving the Nation of Islam. o They emphasized short term and long­term goals in the spring of 1964  such as Police Brutality in Harlem and the stop and frisk policy and  educational and self­defense programs. o They also looked to bring the United States to the United Nations so that  the U.S. could answer for its mistreatment of African Americans and other crimes. o Malcolm X is bringing about international change. He was abroad during  the issues of Harlem. o They wanted to have libraries around to increase educational  opportunities. ­ Local and Global Focus ­ “No Knock” (March 1964): Enable police officers to go without knocking on  doors as long as they had a warrant. o Within 4 days, Harlem was the first to have a riot after James Powell, a  15­year­old African American, was shot by a white police officer in 1964. o “The Revolution will not be televised.”  These actions are being televised. This shows people what is going on. o Watts, California: An African American man was arrested for drunk  th driving on August 11 , 1965. When the man protested, a larger crowd was called. It broke out in violence.  People there attacked passing cars, arson was committed and much more.  This went on for two days until the National Guard stepped in and  settled things down the 14  and 15  of August. o The community targeted the police and other places that exploited people. o In 1968, African Americans attacked those businesses that were deemed  unfair in treatment. One of the features is the civil rights action. What many American Activists are fighting  for is for equal access. What Malcolm X was arguing for their own integration. MLK and Malcolm X wanted nationalism for some different things. Civil Rights & Self Determination The phrase “Black Power” was offered up. The term came from Stokely Carmichael in  1966. He showed his discontent from other Civil Rights leaders. SNCC—Stokely Carmichael “Brown Power”­Latino movement led by Reies Lopez Tijerina in the late 60’s. He and  others demanded the return of land from Americans despite the actions of Guadalupe  Hidalgo who fought to get the land back. “Letter from a Santa Fe Jail” Announced the rich people who had ranches and also those  who have been wronged. People who worked in farm labor weren’t granted the same amount of protections that  other fields of work did have. The New Deal Policy of the National Labor Relations act  of 1935 didn’t cover them. United Farm Workers (UFW): Pushed for new practices such as to not use pesticides in a  field, and better wages. This was for Multi­racial workers.  Cesar Chavez: Gained attention for issues through hunger strikes and also started the  United Farm Workers. La Raza: The people. This descended from longer Mexican history. Red Power American Indian Chicago Conference (1961): 400+ Delegates from 65 tribal  communities attended. “The Declaration of Indian Purpose” was sent to President  Kennedy.  National Indian youth Conference (NIYC): Later on, The Chicago conference voiced  their outrage at getting their issues answered, so they formed this organization in Gallup,  New Mexico. They demanded a new role in determining Native Americans in  determining policies that affected their lives. Lyndon Johnson’s war on poverty increased federal programs and programs included many Native Americans. Fish­ins: Marlon Brando stepped in to bring awareness to the issues that Native  Americans were facing, one in particular was fishing. Every tribe had an important part in the Native Americans life. More than just food and economic base, this was also part of  their spiritual activities and social activities of the communities. Salmon and fishing  rights were written in many of the treaties specifically in the Pacific Northwest. American Indian Movement Mt. Rushmore was protected unlike the Black Hills. The Sioux have yet to receive the  money because they will not give up control of the Black Hills. They also protested beatings by the police, unlawful imprisonment and the unlawful  death of Raymond Yellow Thunder, an Oglala Indian who was beaten to death in Gordon Nebraska in 1972. Leroy Shenandoah was an Onondoga Indian who was a veteran that was beaten and shot  to death by the Philadelphia police who called it a “justifiable homicide”. Nixon—Special Message on Indian Affairs in 1970’s about the Native Americans’  mistreatment. The political, economic and overall well being of Native Americans was  something Nixon held close, as he was part Native American himself. Native Americans  identified with him because of what he did. This was a turning point for all of them. This  undid some detrimental policies. Congress passed a series of laws that ranged from land claims to funding for education  and religious freedom. Prison riots were happening from the 70’s to the 80’s. One of the most notable was  Attica, where there was a four day stand off between prisoners and outside forces. They  had control of the prison and many prisoners died. Oklahoma had one as well as New  Mexico. What is happening in these prisons? What caused such things as this? This was  health issues, over crowding and abuse by the guards by prisoners. Some of these were  also due to religious freedoms. Religious Freedom issues were still happening. Certain groups didn’t have the same  rights as other groups. Dietary concerns would come up for Buddhists and Peyote for  Native Americans came into concerns as well as eagle feathers. Can we continue to have  religious freedom in the context of the U.S. person? This goes back to the question  “Democracy for Who?”


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