The Long Civil Rights movement
The Long Civil Rights movement HIST 222
Popular in History of the United States, 1877 to Present
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Johnson Womack on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 222 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Julie Reed in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see History of the United States, 1877 to Present in History at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 04/17/16
41116 The Long Civil Rights Movement Legacy of Plessey v Ferguson Jim Crow: Created economic discrimination. There was a constant fear that African Americans had. There were powers that people could get. WWII led many African Americans to not accept the way things were. This was a long time in the making. They had been working to have equal access to school and much more. They weren’t going to accept secondclass status. Brown v board of Education (1954) Sustained efforts 1930s1950s NAACP Thurgood Marshall and Constance Baker Motley fought the system through courts. She got sent in to areas of the south that she is someone who can move through spaces who wouldn’t get a lot of torment. LULAC “All deliberate speed” (1955) Southern States Southern Manifesto Response to brown v Board “All deliberate speed” (1955) Southern States Southern Manifesto Implementing integration Little Rock (September 1957): 9 African Americans came through there. These women had the National Guard, and then they had none. Norfolk, Virginia (195859): They attempted avoidance rather than confrontation. They had local school districts close in order to resist integration. 4 high schools and 3 junior high schools were closed, but then private high schools were being used. 6% of African Americans attended integrated schools. By 1973, it went up to 90% Swann v. Charlotte Mecklenburg (1971): The last Supreme Court case to address desegregation in schools. This case upheld the use of busing to achieve integration. 83% of people refused busing sometimes for waking up early. Higher education: Change was slow to universities. 1956: University of Alabama attempted to integrate ____ but then expelled her. University of Mississippi (September, 1962): James Meredith University of Alabama (1968): Civil Rights – Political and Economic actions SCLC o Birmingham, Alabama 1963 This was a local and focused strategy April of 1963 was when a sit in happened o Bull Connor, Public Safety Commissioner o MLK, Jr. “Letter from Birmingham City Jail” o Sixteenth Street Baptist Church Bombing 4 children were killed March on Washington o August 28, 1963 o 250,000 o MLK, JR. “I Have a Dream” speech. This helped the Brooklyn dodgers have Jackie Robinson on the team. Multifaceted Civil Rights actions SNCC & SCLC Voter registration Drive Freedom Schools Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) March from Selma 7500 marchers Voting Rights Act (1965) The promise of Kennedy vs. the will of Johnson Kennedy Assassination of Dallas, 1963 Kennedy National Service Corp Youth Conservation Corp Education and Job Training Lyndon Johnson Voting Rights Act (1965) The War on Poverty Office of Economic Opportunity Job Corp Neighborhood Youth Corp Volunteers in Service in Service to America Community Action Agencies 500 Agencies provided help. Segregation not only deprived but also distracted white southerners to their own plights and difficulties. War on Two Fronts Poverty Civil Rights Civil rights Act 1964 Equal Opportunity Employment Commission (EEOC) The Great Society Elementary and Secondary education act Higher education act Medical care act o Medicare o Medicaid o Appalachian Regional development Act What is a win in the war on poverty? Did Johnson make a dent? 41316 Democracy & SelfDetermination Vietnam war is from 19651973 2.5 Million AfricanAmericans from farms moved to Northern cities in the ‘50’s & 60’s. Domestic and social concerns of African Americans as well as other minorities to other incidents. When the war is feeding upon itself, there are social justice struggles popping up. Cities are often where discontent is being associated. It is consistent with changes that are happening. Many unionized jobs were the ideas that the farmers didn’t have access to. Cities Concentrated Poverty Failing infrastructure o Many of the urban centers drew block by block and there was depreciation. There are many people that are attempting to address civil rights issues more broadly. o Bridges, water mains and Fires stations were 150 years old and were wearing out by the 60’s and the 70’s. The elevated west Coast side highway near the Hudson River had to be closed down due to chunks fell out onto the roadways. o Utilities and transportation systems were subject to large market forces and public policy. Central concerns: o Cost of living o Unemployment o Education Long hot summer, 1964 Context: People were dissatisfied with the pace at social justice issues being implemented. o Unemployment was still high despite civil rights changes and there was discontent from police. o Riots in Rochester, Brooklyn and Harlem broke out in July of this year. This led to 4 years of violence due to dissatisfaction of how civil rights laws were being implemented. o 200 people were killed in every riot that happened with the majority being African Americans. o Politicians, instead of addressing the issues of the minorities blamed it on RiffRaff and outside agitators. These were neighborhood residents. They weren’t always completely representing their neighborhoods because many of them were young people. OAAU: Organization of Afro American Union (1964). o Malcolm X formed it after bitterly leaving the Nation of Islam. o They emphasized short term and longterm goals in the spring of 1964 such as Police Brutality in Harlem and the stop and frisk policy and educational and selfdefense programs. o They also looked to bring the United States to the United Nations so that the U.S. could answer for its mistreatment of African Americans and other crimes. o Malcolm X is bringing about international change. He was abroad during the issues of Harlem. o They wanted to have libraries around to increase educational opportunities. Local and Global Focus “No Knock” (March 1964): Enable police officers to go without knocking on doors as long as they had a warrant. o Within 4 days, Harlem was the first to have a riot after James Powell, a 15yearold African American, was shot by a white police officer in 1964. o “The Revolution will not be televised.” These actions are being televised. This shows people what is going on. o Watts, California: An African American man was arrested for drunk th driving on August 11 , 1965. When the man protested, a larger crowd was called. It broke out in violence. People there attacked passing cars, arson was committed and much more. This went on for two days until the National Guard stepped in and settled things down the 14 and 15 of August. o The community targeted the police and other places that exploited people. o In 1968, African Americans attacked those businesses that were deemed unfair in treatment. One of the features is the civil rights action. What many American Activists are fighting for is for equal access. What Malcolm X was arguing for their own integration. MLK and Malcolm X wanted nationalism for some different things. Civil Rights & Self Determination The phrase “Black Power” was offered up. The term came from Stokely Carmichael in 1966. He showed his discontent from other Civil Rights leaders. SNCC—Stokely Carmichael “Brown Power”Latino movement led by Reies Lopez Tijerina in the late 60’s. He and others demanded the return of land from Americans despite the actions of Guadalupe Hidalgo who fought to get the land back. “Letter from a Santa Fe Jail” Announced the rich people who had ranches and also those who have been wronged. People who worked in farm labor weren’t granted the same amount of protections that other fields of work did have. The New Deal Policy of the National Labor Relations act of 1935 didn’t cover them. United Farm Workers (UFW): Pushed for new practices such as to not use pesticides in a field, and better wages. This was for Multiracial workers. Cesar Chavez: Gained attention for issues through hunger strikes and also started the United Farm Workers. La Raza: The people. This descended from longer Mexican history. Red Power American Indian Chicago Conference (1961): 400+ Delegates from 65 tribal communities attended. “The Declaration of Indian Purpose” was sent to President Kennedy. National Indian youth Conference (NIYC): Later on, The Chicago conference voiced their outrage at getting their issues answered, so they formed this organization in Gallup, New Mexico. They demanded a new role in determining Native Americans in determining policies that affected their lives. Lyndon Johnson’s war on poverty increased federal programs and programs included many Native Americans. Fishins: Marlon Brando stepped in to bring awareness to the issues that Native Americans were facing, one in particular was fishing. Every tribe had an important part in the Native Americans life. More than just food and economic base, this was also part of their spiritual activities and social activities of the communities. Salmon and fishing rights were written in many of the treaties specifically in the Pacific Northwest. American Indian Movement Mt. Rushmore was protected unlike the Black Hills. The Sioux have yet to receive the money because they will not give up control of the Black Hills. They also protested beatings by the police, unlawful imprisonment and the unlawful death of Raymond Yellow Thunder, an Oglala Indian who was beaten to death in Gordon Nebraska in 1972. Leroy Shenandoah was an Onondoga Indian who was a veteran that was beaten and shot to death by the Philadelphia police who called it a “justifiable homicide”. Nixon—Special Message on Indian Affairs in 1970’s about the Native Americans’ mistreatment. The political, economic and overall well being of Native Americans was something Nixon held close, as he was part Native American himself. Native Americans identified with him because of what he did. This was a turning point for all of them. This undid some detrimental policies. Congress passed a series of laws that ranged from land claims to funding for education and religious freedom. Prison riots were happening from the 70’s to the 80’s. One of the most notable was Attica, where there was a four day stand off between prisoners and outside forces. They had control of the prison and many prisoners died. Oklahoma had one as well as New Mexico. What is happening in these prisons? What caused such things as this? This was health issues, over crowding and abuse by the guards by prisoners. Some of these were also due to religious freedoms. Religious Freedom issues were still happening. Certain groups didn’t have the same rights as other groups. Dietary concerns would come up for Buddhists and Peyote for Native Americans came into concerns as well as eagle feathers. Can we continue to have religious freedom in the context of the U.S. person? This goes back to the question “Democracy for Who?”
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