CE 3510-Materials_Week 5 Lecture Notes
CE 3510-Materials_Week 5 Lecture Notes CIVILEN 3510
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aaron Bowshier on Friday February 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CIVILEN 3510 at Ohio State University taught by Shive Chaturvedi in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 101 views. For similar materials see CIVILEN 3510 - Civil Engineering Materials in Engineering and Tech at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 02/13/15
CO TINUATION OF CHAPTER 1 CE 451 CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS SHAN SOMAYAJI Tangent at Initial tangent I 2quot Tangent modulus l I at Initial tangent modulus Stress Secant modulus 39 Stress strain diagram Strain 16 Mndulns of elasticity VI Ductile amp Brittle Materials Plasticity is the property of a material that enables it to retain permanent set or deformation without fracture Construction materials are divided into two classes 1 Plastic or ductile DUCTILE Property that allows it to undergo change of form without breaking Examples wrought iron steel copper BRITTLE materials have little or no 2 Brlttle Example concrete mortar brick glass TOUGHNESS represents the ability of a material to support loads even after yielding or crack formation SHAN SOMAYAJI CE 451 CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS NORMALLY THE STRENGTH AND STIFFNESS ARE INDEPENDENT StressStrain behavior of various materials Out of date Soft SOFTNESS AND HARDNESS ARE THE SURFACE PROPERTIES OF A MATERIAL EX DIAMOND IS HARDER THAN GLASS IS HARDER THAN STEEL Weak a tle RELATE TO THE RESISTANCE OF THE SURFACE AGAINST SCRATCHING WEAR INDENTATION We weak Dquot 15 UUA a I Material B is more ductile than A Toughness of B gt Toughness A N0 load 1 I I I a x I I 39 I I I I j I I i ak I I i 7 f 5quot r y 1 I 1 Cast iron shear plane Concrete shear plane b Concrete shear cone Because total area B gt total area A 3 Mortar cube shear cone Figure 19 a Ductile and b brittle materials in compression UNIVme CE 451 CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS SHAN SOMAYAJI VII Selection of Materials Primary Functions Carry the prescribed load Satisfy serviceable requirements Be economical Be environmentally acceptable Be aesthetically pleasing Available materials materials A B C D l I gtCSelect a material for consideration iv No 39 Yes Does the materlal satisfy strength requ1rements l No Yes Does the matenal satisfy serv1ceab111ty requirements l I No Yes Are the aesthetic quahtles of the materlal acceptable l L Does the material satisfy cost constraints material cost plus construction cost l I No lt I I Yes lt Does the use of the material pose N0 environmental problems or hazards C Select the material 3 Figure 110 Materials selection owchart 10 CE 451 CIVIL ENGINEERING MATERIALS SHAN SOMAYAJI VIII Standards ASTM Standards Agencies 1 2 ANSI American National Standards Institute NFPA National Forest Products Association PCA Portland Cement Association ACI American Concrete Association AISC American Iron and Steel Institute BIA Brick Institute of America CONCLUSION OF CHAPTER 391 Chapter 2 The Wonderful World of Aggregates 1 Aggregate De nition A granular material such as sand gravel crushed stone or iron blasted furnace slag use with a cementing media to form mortar concrete used as a base course or railroad ballast II Classi cation of Aggregates amp Types A Based on Size B Types of Aggregates 1 Fine 1 Crushed Stone 2 Coarse 2 Gravel 3 Sand BASED ON SIZE 111 Fine Aggregates sand Natural or manufactured particles Size range 0006 in 150 micrometers to 316 in 475mm IV Coarse Aggregates Rounded river gravel crushed stone and manufactured aggregate Size range Larger than 316 in V Gravel Natural rounded aggregate larger that 14 in To 15 in Occasionally 25 in or 3 in VI Crushed Gravel A fine aggregate made by crushing the gravel ACCORDING TO WEIGHT i Heavy Weight Natural from rocks ii Normal Weight OR iii Light Weight Artificial V Heavy Weight Aggregates Concretes for protection against nuclear radiation and as bomb shelters etc Specify Gravity 4 77 Unit Weight 2400 kgrnAS to 6400 kgrnAS TYPES Magnetite Barite Iron Shot or Scrap Iron VI Normal Weight Aggregates Crushed stone gravel and sand for normal weight concretes asphalt concretes and roadway sub base Specific Weight 26 265 Unit Weight 1520 kgrnAS 1680 kgrnAS TYPES Normal Sands gravel crushed rock granite quartzite syenite basalt sandstone and limestone Arti cial Broken brick pulverized concrete air cooled blast furnace slag silicates and aluminates of calcium VII Light Weight Aggregates Light weight concretes light weight roof slabs or floors Unit Weight 880 kgrnAS 1120 kgrnAS Pumice volcanic glass whitish grey to yellow in color grown red and TYPES black porous structure Normal Volcanic Scoria pores larger than that in Pumice and is a red to black color Sawdust Wood Shavings Asbestos now deemed hazardous Am mal Furnace clinker Foamed Slag EXpanded clay shale slate perlite sintered shale VIII Rocks clay pulverized fuel ash and vermiculite De nition Rocks are minutes of several minerals T H OHIO UN I VERSITY Types of Rocks 1 Igneous 2 Sedimentary 3 Metamorphic 4 Minerals Natural occurring chemical element or compound with a de nite crystalline structure and distinctive physical properties Most Common Rock Minerals Feldspars most common group abundant in earths crust Quarts Kaolinite Muscovite and Calcite l Igneous Rocks Formed by cooling and hardening of molten magma Earth39s crust contains about 90 Important igneous rocks granites basalts pumice scoria and rhyolite Mineral composition of granite is principally FELDSPARS Potassium Al Silicates Sodium Al Silicates Calcium Al 2 Sedimentary Rocks Formed by the accumulation or deposit of transported fragments followed by consolidation Earths crust contains approx 5 of Sed amp Met Rocks and exposed rocks are approx 75 sedimentary Transportation Media water ice and Wind mmon Rocks FSandstones limestone CaCOS and shales Quarts most abundant mineral lShales slits powdered quarts and silica amp clays oxides of silica and Al Iron Mg 3 Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphosis alteration of sedimentary and or igneous rocks from heat pressure or both Examples Schist gneiss Slate amp Marble SOME PROPERTIES OF COMMON ROCKS Compressive Modulus of Modulus of Type of Speci c Porosity Dansity strength rupture elasticity rock gravity s psi kg mg ksi Wat ksiIIMPs ksi MPa 33 10 3 Granite 265 165 26513 15 35 103 241 1222 SS 152 6 10 413 689 Limestone D S30 1163 Willi 5 35 344 241 DES 27quot lquot 18 4514 26965 Marble 263 0 15 175 250 10 30 683394063 ELSE 23 34453 4214 216 965 Sandstone 254 1 20 i U 258m w301482 2067 05 20 3433 145 6941 Slate 274 N0 27 a Shale 2130 21 3101 140 2255 Crushed Stone Uses of Aggregates Sand amp Gravel Uses of Aggregates
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