New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Week 10 Notes

by: Chasia Notetaker

Week 10 Notes BIOL 12000

Chasia Notetaker
GPA 3.56

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover the week of April 4
Fundamentals of Biology II: Ecology and E
Nancy L Jacobson
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Fundamentals of Biology II: Ecology and E

Popular in Biology

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chasia Notetaker on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 12000 at Ithaca College taught by Nancy L Jacobson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Biology II: Ecology and E in Biology at Ithaca College.


Reviews for Week 10 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/17/16
Week of April 4, 2015    Population Ecology ­ Growth    Population­ a group of animals of a single species that occupy the same general area  ­rely on the same resources  ­are influenced by the same environmental influences  ­are likely to interact and breed with one another    Population Growth  Additions through  ­births and immigration    Losses through  ­deaths and emigration    Zero growth when  ­births + immigration = deaths and emigration    Exponential Growth Model  G= how many individuals are added to the population in a certain amount of time (net gain)  N= how many individuals are in the population at the beginning of the time period  ­G increases by a constant that is related to N  G= rN  r=per capita growth rate  (r= per capita birth rate­ per capita death rate)   (r=b­d)    Logistic Growth Model  ­is exponential when the population is very small  ­slows as resources become less available, fewer and fewer individuals can be added  ­zero growth when reaches K  ­K= carrying capacity   ­max population size that can live in a population “indefinitely”   G= rN [(K­N)/K]  ­refers to the proportion of resources still available for growth   ­when N is very small, there are lots of resources   ­ (K­N)/ K ~ 1 and population increases exponentially   ­when N = K, there are no extra resources   ­ (K­N)/ K = 0 and population doesn’t increase    Does population always show logistic growth as it reaches K?  ­no, the population may overshoot K  ­population gets so large it degrades the habitat  ­then population crashes     Which factors control population size?  ­density dependent factors   ­have greater effect as density increase  ­limited essential resources = bottom up control  ­ex. Food and breeding sites  ­predators, parasites, and pathogens = top down control  ­ex. Bubonic plague in Europe in 14th Century   ­density independent factors   ­have equal effect (same % die) regardless of density  ­ex. Harsh weather (if no refuge), toxic pollution  ­may be seasonal reduces the population in the winter than in spring and summer the  population grows exponentially  ­ex. Many insects in the Northeast    ­demographic transition model:  ­b and d change as a country becomes more economically developed  ­d decreases first, which causes r to increase  ­later b decreases  ­based on Europe and United States, starting in the 1800’s in England  ­death rates decreased due to   ­more stable food supply ( mechanized agriculture, plant and animal breeding)  ­decreases in infectious diseases  ­food safety ( ex. pasteurization)  ­sanitation (ex. realized cholera was spread through contamination of  water by feces; addition of chlorine to the water)  ­vaccinations (first was against smallpox)  ­antibiotics (first was penicillin)  ­birth rates decrease due to  ­the usual measure of per capita birth rate is TFR  ­TFR= total fertility rate = fertility rate  ­average number of children born to each woman during her reproductive  age   ­2 children per woman will replace her (and her husband)  ­actually 2.1 ( on average because some daughters will die before reaching  reproductive age)  ­TFR=2.1 children per woman, leads to a population staying the same size  ­world’s population’s TFR is 2.5   ­more women delay reproduction to early 30s   ­greater access to contraceptives, including through government family planning  programs   ­better health care:  infant mortality has been cut in half since 1990  ­from 8.9 million infant deaths in 1990 to 4.5 million in 2015  ­parents are more confident that children will survive to take care of them in their old age  ­birth rates decrease    Life History Patterns  ­chances of survival and of reproduction often vary by age  ­shown in a Life Table  ­patterns of survivorship can also be depicted in survivorship curves  ­follows a cohort as they age     


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.