PS205 Week 6 lecture notes- Lars Skalnes
PS205 Week 6 lecture notes- Lars Skalnes PS205, CRN 26418
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kathryn Sternberger on Friday February 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PS205, CRN 26418 at University of Oregon taught by Lars Skalnes in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 119 views. For similar materials see Inro. to International Relations in Political Science at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 02/13/15
2112015 Week 6 P5205 Lecture Notes Austria Hungary s Strategic Situation Main problem possible collapse of the Ottoman control of the Balkans Reason Austria Hungary s population contained a large number of ethnic nationalities Germans Hungarians and Slavs New states Bulgaria emerged on the Balkans as the Ottomans began to lose control These states strengthened the Slav population s demand for independence Power vacuum on the Balkans must be lled to suppress these demands If AustriaHungary doesn t move in to this area then there will be left an open space to launch independence movement and break nation apart Britain s Strategic Situation Geographical advantage defend itself and colonies with a Navy Britain intervening on the side of the weak to prevent hegemonic power on the continent played balancer Colonial disputes with Russia in Asia and with France in Africa Egypt the Sudan and Morocco The French and the British are ghting for control in these areas German Foreign Policy 18901914 Shift in German foreign policy after Bismarck O OO O O O 0 From Abandons the diplomatic isolation of France through alliances with Russia and Austria Hungary Abandons emphasis on satiation Alliances were in an effort to keep Britain and France from solving some of their strategic problems Try to convince the world that Germany is a satisfied power Abandon Bismarck policy Pick Austria Hungary over Russia This opens things up for France to make their move continental policy to world policy Weltpolik Demands a place in the sun 0 O O Wants Germany to be recognized as a great power Recognition of German great power status by giving Germany colonies Also would guarantee access to colonial markets World policy required a navy a threat to Great Britain 0 O In order to maintain and manage you need a navy British have to respond Week 6 P5205 Lecture Notes 9 Skalnes just called us out for doing silly things like looking at Instagram photos in class funny stuff Kay back to notes British countermeasures Naval arms race Builds a navy or expands the navy they already have Repair its relations with France and Russia 0 1904 Entente Cordiale with French a colonial agreement I Later extended to military staff talks getting together and planning a war how do they ght together Troika became known as the Triple Entente not a formal alliance o This relationship between Britain France and Russia 0 Why did they not make a formal agreement I There was not domestic support for this agreement I A lot of this relationship occurred in secret from the cabinet I Britain was following a policy of splendid isolation I If they had officially agreed to take alliance with France would that have deterred the British Realist Explanation of rise of German Power Realists pay particular attention to the shift in power Focus on the rise of German power Political unification in 1871 Rapid industrialization Economic growth converted into military power Balance of Power theory When two states have equal military capabilities each will be uncertain whether it can beat the other in a war and thus makes state reluctant to start one 0 Core realist explanation for why we get WWI o If one state had a preponderance of power it would use its advantage to conquer its weaker adversary o This explanation doesn t explain why we get war in one of these crisis between these powers but not the others The rise of German power upset the equilibrium or balance of power Realists could argue that with this imbalance of power war is bound to occur eventually Offense vs Defense Variation in severity of the security dilemma defensive realism Week 6 P5205 Lecture Notes Offense has the advantage Easier to take enemy territory than it is to defend one s own 0 Exacerbates the security dilemma o If offense has the advantage it means security dilemma is particularly severe Defense has the advantage Security Dilemma before WWI Belief that the offense has the advantage Difficult to distinguish between offensive and defensive weapons What happens when offense has the advantage Wars will be profitable for the winner 0 Wars will be short so cost of aggression declines Intense arms races Premium on building strong alliances States will be quick to perceive others as aggressive States have a greater incentive to mobilize and strike first This was a complete illusion o the offensive did not have the advantage The Illusions of the Offensive Schlieffen attack meaning offensive warfareis the best defense 0 Say machine gun makes it easier to attack French agreed wholeheartedly and so did the British and the Russians Missed some go back and look The importance of Rapid Mobilization Premium on mobilizing first Rigid mobilization plans Cannot stop mobilization train once set in motion Plans could not be recast the deployment of millions cannot be improvised AJP Taylor The First World War hadbeen imposed on the statesmen of Europe by railway timetables 0 Once this thing is in motion you can t really change it all of this was planned in advanced once it is set in motion it is done Theory vs Reality Changes in technology of warfare had in fact given the defensive the advantage 0 Machine gun Week 6 P5205 Lecture Notes Ri ed and repeating small arms Barbed wire The belief that the offensive had the advantage was just wrong Question of chemical weapons I We are focusing on the why the war emerged I Chemical weapons did not emerge til during the war I Had nothing to do with coming up to the war I Chemical weapons affected the psyche of the soldiers but Skalnes argues they did not affect the outcome of the war and what we are talking about is why the war broke out in the rst place Idea that offensive had the advantage was engrained in military thought and even civilian thought classic example of misconception o It is almost a social phenomenon o It is a misconception across Europe 0 Usually misconceptions are an individual issue 0 This misconception is so widespread that you can almost consider it to be a cultural element American Civil War and the RussoJapanese War had shown the advantages of the defense Lessons were ignored 0000 A cult of the offensive Why a cult o It is a cultural thing 0 Ignores readily available information The belief in offensive advantage is widely believed Summary Belief the offensive had the advantage premium on quick mobilization war planned in detail in advance cannot change in midstream Crisis needed little inducement to start mobilization 0 Led to immediate countermobilizations and the involvement of everyone Problems with this argument Timing many crisis before 1914 that did not leave to war 0 What about the July crisis made it different Unclear what it means to say that the offense is dominant 0 Defense is almost always easier 0 As long as attackers have superior forces offense will dominate I A constant not a variable Ignores the political objectives of states 0 Rational reasons for choosing offensive doctrines protect allies and maintain military alliances Week 6 P5205 Lecture Notes Alliance politics Could argue that these series of con icts between 1911 and 1914 had increased international tensions and demonstrated the importance of maintaining tight alliances o Leads Germany to issue a blank check to Austria Hungary in the July cr1s1s o What is the July crisis exactly When Franz Ferdinand was assassinated A turn out there was a terrorist organization called the Black Hand that assassinated him The Serbs knew about the problem with the Black Hand and some government had very close ties to this group French efforts to strengthen the alliance with Russia had Balkanized the alliance which implied unwavering support for Serbia in the crisis 0 The alliance is focused on the Balkan problem meaning they will support Serbia 0 Blank checks all around Germans to Vienna AustriaHungary French Russia French and RussiansBelgrade Serbia Britain and France also draw closer detailed naval and military arrangements in the years leading up to war Why War in 1914 Williamson article 0 The Austrian desire for military action is the essential difference from the earlier crises Prestige Territorial gain in Serbia Need to assert great power status Failure to act in the past had made situation worse Misplaced confidence in the judgment of generals Hope that German support would deter Russia Liberal Explanations Focus on miscommunications miscalculations and misconceptions 0 Change in German leadership and diplomatic skills contrast Bismarck and Kaiser Wilhelm 0 Importance of mobilizing rst gave diplomacy too little room to maneuver 0 Germany expected or hoped that Britain would remain neutral 0 Germany and AustriaHungary envisioned a local in which Russia would not intervene The kind of factor liberals would point to to promote the cooperation were not developed enough before the war Constructivist Explanation Focus on the emergence and new ideas and identities Militarist and racist forms of nationalism spread in Europe in the late 19th century Week 6 P5205 Lecture Notes 0 Social Darwinism notion of survival of the ttest was applied to nations and groups 0 Military strength and racial and cultural cohesion a measure of tness 0 Cf Serbia and Russia and the panslav movement What role did ideas about honor prestige security play a role in in uencing the decisions made
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