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Diverity II Notes Week 12

by: Jacob Erle

Diverity II Notes Week 12 211

Marketplace > Syracuse University > Foreign Language > 211 > Diverity II Notes Week 12
Jacob Erle
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About this Document

Here are the notes from Dr. Farrell's and his lecture on more modern fish orders and Dr. Gibbs' introducing us to herps. Unfortunately I was out of town on Tuesday for a conference in Albany and h...
Diversity of Life II
Justine Weber
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacob Erle on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 211 at Syracuse University taught by Justine Weber in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Diversity of Life II in Foreign Language at Syracuse University.


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Date Created: 04/17/16
Diversity of Life II Notes Week 12 4/12/16 John Farrell – Diversity of Teleostei “Perfect Bone” ­greatest vertebrate radiation ­nearly 27,000 species and ~1/2 of vertebrate species ­evolved from extinct order Pholidoriformes ­Inhabit nearly all aquatic habitats  ­Immense diversity of form and function  Teleostei Distribution ­Globally with greatest diversity, majority in Southeast Asia ­Species predominate in low latitude tropical and equatorial – why? ­There are likely more South American catfishes than all NA fish fauna combined ­NYS has quite a large north temperate diversity, with over 100 freshwater species ­Fish are one of the most threatened fauna globally Osteoglossomorpha “Bony Tongues” (220species) ­Most primitive form of teleost ­teeth on tongue and roof of mouth ­freshwater ­Local example – Mooneye ­Also includes 200+ species of Mormyrids– ELECTRIFYING! ­Arapaima – air breathing giants Elopomorpha – Leptocephalus larvae (804species) ­Tarpons, eels, bonefishes ­Transparent leptocephali  ­Local example – American Eel (Anguilla rostrada) – amazing catadromus life cycle linking the  Bermuda triangle to Upstate NY! ­Bizarre deep sea gulpers Ex. Gulper eel Otocephala “ear to swimbladder” (8,344 species) Clupeomorpha – herrings (sardine, menhaden), shads Ostariophysi – (webarian apparatus & Schreckreaktion) 68% of FW species – known  for abundance Ex. Goliath Tigerfish (Hydrocynus goliath)  ­All have a weberian organ – modified anterior vertebrae to enhance hearing  sensitivity Cypriniformes – Minnows ­found in North American, Africa and Eurasia Gymnotiformes – restricted to Neotropics Ex. Knifefishes – most are weakly electric ­convergent with mormyrid fishes in Africa Ex. Electric Eel – powerful electric charges for defense and feeding, can be up to 3m long ­ecologically convergent with electric catfish in Africa Siluriformes – Catfishes Ex. Banja Catfish, imitates leaves Ex. Whip­tailed Catfish, imitates sticks Ex. Parasitic Catfish, sucks blood from gills of big catfish Salmoniformes ­nest builders Ex. Arctic Char, Grayling Percomorpha – 9,000+species ­Bluegills to Tunas, most advanced teleosts  ­Archerfish ­Mudskipper ( Periophthalmus   sp.) Local – Walleye and Perch! Other Amazing Examples ­Air ­ Flying fish (Beloniformes) ­Land – Walking fish (Clarias batrachus)  ­Sea – Estuaries, intertidal, reefs, to deep sea and continental shelf ­Freshwater ­  less than 1% of world’s water, but contains 40% of fishes Hot springs (41C)  – desert pupfish Subfreezing (­2C) – ice fish Cichlidae ­One of the most diverse vertebrate families – 1600 to perhaps 3000 species ­Parental care – several interesting forms speleophils (cave spawners) ­Feeding strategies – herbivores, detritivores, snail specialist, sponges, predators, paedophagy,  death mimics Deep Sea Fish ­many bizarre forms Order Stomiiformes Ex. Dragonfish – use photophore as lure to attract prey, or to communicate with  conspecifics Ice Fish ­possess antifreeze glycoprotein in blood and body fluids ­ oxygen absorbed directly into plasma Other Extreme Examples ­Photocorynus spiniceps – deep sea anglerfish – parasitic males <8mm ­Mekong catfish – largest FW fish ­Oarfish – longest fish – perhaps up to 17 meters – more likely ~11 meters 4/14/16 James Gibbs – Herpetology, Amphibians and Reptiles ‘Herps’ = Greek for ‘creeping things’ Subphylum Vertebrata Classes Amphibia, ~5900 species and Reptilia, ~8,000species (and Class Aves,  ~10,000species) Have lower species value by USA public (we really prefer birds and mammals), very fearful of  reptiles (e.g.snake bite) Reptiles, biblical allegory – Adam and Eve Class Amphibia Evolutionary context st ­1  4­legged tetrapods, diverged from lobe­finned fishes ~360 ­ 340MYA ­basic body plan has not changed much over the millions of years Lissamphibia­ (“smooth”­“double­life”) living amphibians ­double life could refer to different life stages (larval vs. adult form) or two different  habitat types (aquatic and terrestrial) Common Traits ­Smooth skin, especially in larvae (2­3 layers thick) ­contains venomous glands (granular), pheromones (hedonic glands) and mucous  glands ­psychedelic, witchcraft ­site of gas exchange, NO LUNGS  valerian respiration ­breathe through skin and tissues lining mouth ­permeable to water ­need high levels of humidity and lots of water (some exceptions)  ­Shell­less eggs (bare, raw embryo), gelatinous and very fragile ­GENERALLY eggs are laid in water, hatch into larvae and will  metamorphose into morphologically distinct adult stage ­more active at night, springtime (lots of rain) ­pedicellate teeth, not calcified – appear in rows and constantly breaking off and  being replaced (crown of teeth ­able to elevate eyes (use levitator bulbi muscle), can be used for protection and  to help push food down Order Anura (tailless amphibians) Frogs and Toads, ~4,700 species Size ranges from Nobella sp in Cusco, Peru the size of your fingernail to West African goliath  frog that can barely fit in a child’s lap! Toads – tougher skin, covered in bumps and blisters  can inhabit (somewhat) dryer areas than  frogs Common traits ­fore and hindlimbs unequal sizes ­tail is lost ­skeleton has many fused bones:  radius and ulna, head and trunk, tibia and fibula ­urostyle ­robust, reinforced powerful system used for leaping around and making safe  landing Communicating Signals ­largely vocal (see Spring Peeper) and more often at night  more active, less wind  obstruction ­powerful vocal cords and elastic resonating membranes that expand to amplify CROAK Ancestral mode ­eggs develop in water, external fertilization (little to no parental care) ­wide diversity of reproductive modes seen in anurans Tadpoles (“swimming raspy sieve attached to a gut”) ­most are herbivores High predation rates – less than 10% of tadpoles reach adulthood (preyed on by dragonflies,  reptiles, even other larger amphibians) Order Caudata (Urodela), tail­bearing ­ Newts and Salamanders, ~500species Size ranges from Dwarf Salamander smaller than your thumbnail to huge ones to Cryptogragan  salamanders in China, Japan, and Korea over 6’ long Generally salamanders with drier, rougher skin = NEWTS ‘Salamander’ = Persian for ‘born in fire’ Traits ­4 limbs of equal size (exception – sirens) with a tail ­many are fossorial ­all skin so lungs may be vestigial or absent ­elongated body Plethodontidae is lungless ­very impressive muscles for protracting and retracting tongue Incredible abundance – 80billion eastern red­backed salamanders in NYS alone (1 found every  2 ½ m ) ­internal fertilization – male lays spermatophores with sperm bag attached to stalk that female  will pick up and carry inside them to develop young ­Aquatic eggs, some terrestrial ­Larvae are stream­lined and carnivorous with external gills and ‘balancer’ Paedomorphosis (can be obligate or facultative) – form of heterochromy where adults are  aquatic and retain traits of juveniles  Gymnophiona (Apoda) = without legs, Caecilian ~160species ­analog to earthworms ­found in tropics, almost exclusively fossorial Characteristics ­head is battering ram to drive through soil, eyes are largely vestigial & covered by  skin/bone ­tentacle of head may act as chemosensory organ to detect underground prey ­Encircling primary grooves – annuli to give them rigidity  ­dermal (bony) scales found deep in tissues of each annular groove (similar to fish scales)


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