Chapter 4 PSYC 3310 Industrial-Organizational Psychology
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Lara on Friday February 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3310 Industrial-Organizational Psychology at University of Houston taught by Dr. Lisa Penney in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 198 views. For similar materials see Industrial-Organizational Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 02/13/15
questions for proj what is a typical day for you ask to be told the process of it what are your responsibilities Five main things you are responsible for how do you accomplish that Email Bunta and Martha To appraise employees39 job performances there must be a standard developed to compare them too Performance appraisal has two parts define what means good performance implementing the procedure to appraise the job performance Why appraise employees administrative decisions are based on job performances such as Negative actionsfiring Positive actionspromoting and pay raises Example companies give raises based on job performance Reason to use job performance data for administrative decisions is due to Contract and law union contract explains that evaluatingappraising job performances is the reason for administrative decisions like pay raises a contract can also state that performance evaluationsappraisals will not occur Employee development and feedback To perform better employees need feedback from supervisors supervisors provide to their employees about what is expected on the job and how well they are meeting those expectations employees need to know if they are doing well or how the can improve in order to be able to move up in the company new trend is creating comprehensive performance management system That way there is continual growth for the employees Research IO psychologists are concerned with improving employee job performance such as designing better equipment hiring better people motivating employees training employee this is possible through conducting a research study which is done by completing an experiment to check whether the control group or experimental group had better job performance Performance criteria criterion performance of anything is able to be judged compared to a standard Characteristics of criteria Actual or theoretical criterion Actual criterion theoretical criterion is assessed or operationalized putting into effect the performance appraisal technique like counting a salesperson39s technique Theoretical criterion is theoretical construct or what in theory would be good performance Example of theoretical and actual criterion Artist Theoretical create great works of art Actual judgments of art experts Problem with actual criterion biased or assess other irrelevant things to the theoretical criterion which is called Criterion Contamination criterion contamination is due to the actual criterion re ecting something that it was not designed to assess or unreliability which is measurement error biases arise from actual criterion being a person39s judgment and opinion Example a critic judging artwork by being biased unreliability is from errors in measuring or trying to assess something Criterion deficiency actual criterion does not adequately cover the all of the theoretical criterion or is not good to assess the theoretical criterion part of the theoretical criterion is not assessed Criterion relevance actual criterion assessing theoretical criterion accurately Level of specificity Assessing a person39s job performance overall would help to make administrative decisions like who should be promoted assessing a person39s specific skills can help them if they want to improve like if a person types too slow or makes too many errors Criterion Complexity For many jobs their complexity due to different tasks being involved in that position require an equally or more complex job performance evaluation assessing how well is the job done quality dimension andor how fast or how much is completed quantity dimension is necessary Nature of the job The differences in each job will have certain things that are assessed that will take precedence over others Example working in media requires a professional appearance and to display a certain image like a dress code two ways of handling the complex nature of criteria composite criterion approach combining a person39s scoresdifferent criteria into a single scoreaverage Example is a composite score for school performance composite criterion approach is preferred for comparing employees together and making administrative decisions such as promoting or firing multidimensional approach does not combine different scores but each single duty of the role is evaluated individually which is great for giving feedback to employees due to the specific information Dynamic criteria Performance is able to change over time which makes it a variable Example is top performers will not always be the best performer at a different time problem with this is that evaluating job performance is difficult since Contextual performance Employees do more than what is required of their position to help coworkers and organizations like volunteering to handle extra tasks managers appreciate the contextual performance which affect the employees39 ratings Methods for assessing job performance two ways to assess job performance objective performance measures and subjective judgments objective measures counting of various behaviors like days absent from work subjective measures knowledgable people like managers rate people39s job performance when both are administered the level of performance of the employee will not always match Objective measures of job performance A track of an employee39s behavior helps with recording their productivity The five objective measures are an objective count of the various behaviors or amount of work produced Subjective measures of performance assesses job performance most popular is Graphic Rating Form assesses employees on different parts of performance this form focuses on traits of the individual or their performance example is appearance attitude and dependability being assessed Behaviorfocused rating forms focus on trait oriented like dependability or a broad portion of performance like attendance the behavior the person has done or could be expected to do is what the focus is on rater determines which traits the person has Halo errors if the person is given the same rating like outstanding in one area but receives it in other areas where she or he is not performing satisfactory Example is a police officer arresting many criminals yet is not making proper documentation Distributional errors Raters rate everyone the same Leniency errors Raters rate everyone easily Severity errors Raters rate everyone harshly Central tendency Raters rate everyone in the middle on a scale