Psych 400 Week 12 Notes
Psych 400 Week 12 Notes Psyc 400
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Riley on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 400 at Humboldt State University taught by Carrie Aigner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Health Psychology in Psychlogy at Humboldt State University.
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Date Created: 04/17/16
Week Twelve Notes Thursday, 14 April 2016 Tobacco Smoking I. Quitting a. Positive and Negative Reinforcement i. Behavior à results à (positive) = Behavior Repeated 1. Positive = a. Positive Reinforcement i. Increase in positive affect 1. I.E. happiness, contentment ii. Smokers report pleasure and enjoyment as reasons for smoking 1. usually second to reduction in negative affect b. Negative Reinforcement i. Removal of withdrawal symptoms 1. Withdrawal symptoms appear within 2-3 hours Withdrawal Symptom Duration Cravings 2 weeks Increased Appetite 10 weeks Depression 4 weeks Restlessness 4 weeks Poor Concentration 2 weeks Irritability/Anger 4 weeks Disrupted Sleep 1 week Light-headed 2 days Chesty cough 2 weeks ii. Reduction of 1. Anxiety 2. Sad mood 3. Stress 4. Pain iii. Smokers report relief from stress and negative emotion as one of the primary reasons for smoking. iv. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) studies find reduction in anxiety, depression, and stress immediately after smoking. v. ii. Behavior à results à (negative) = Behavior Not Repeated 1. Punishment b. Expectancy may also play a role (placebo!) i. Expectancy of mood enhancement and pain reduction from smoking is associated with greater benefit immediately after smoking a cigarette. c. Fear of Weight Gain i. Fear of gaining weight can get in the way of quitting. 1. Most true for younger (<30) women 2. Women with strong concerns about their weight are more likely to smoke than those without weight concerns a. 37% for those with concerns b. 22% for those without ii. Average weight gain of 11 pounds at one year for men and 6 pounds for women 1. BUT smokers tend to take that off in following years (5 yrs. after quitting) 2. Even if weight gain is not lost, benefits of quitting far outweigh health drawbacks of weight gain II. Interventions for Quitting a. NRT i. Nicotine Replacement Therapies (NRT) include nicotine lozenges, patch, inhalers, gum, etc. 1. NRT boosts quit rates and outperforms placebo 2. May be especially useful when combined with psychological interventions b. Bupropion i. Ex: Zyban and Wellbutrin 1. Originally developed as an antidepressant (SSRI) 2. Inhibits dopamine reuptake (increasing dopamine levels in the brain) 3. About 1 in 5 smokers who use Zyban stay quit at 1 year 4. Similar dosage to use with depression 5. Side effects: 6. Insomnia 7. Dry mouth (also associated with nicotine withdrawal) c. Varenicline (Chantix) i. Similar effectiveness to NRT and bupropion ii. Nicotine receptor agonist (prevents nicotine from binding to receptor) iii. Begin taking 1 week before set quit date iv. Potential side effects: 1. Depression 2. Suicide ideation (moderate evidence) 3. Insomnia 4. Abnormal dreams (good evidence) v. Not ideal for people with pre-existing depression or suicidal thoughts vi. Blocks nicotine’s mood effects, may also be due to withdrawal symptoms vii. May also be used 2-3 months after quitting to help maintain abstinence 1. Increase dosage during quitting viii. Chantix binds to nicotine receptors and blocks them so that nicotine can no longer activate those receptors (an effect that pharmacologists sometimes call an “antagonist” effect). 1. This means that when someone is trying to quit and they lapse and smoke a cigarette, they probably won’t get much satisfaction from smoking it, and will be less likely to smoke another. a. When Chantix binds to nicotine receptors it also triggers some of the same effects that nicotine has (an effect pharmacologists call an “agonist” effect). i. This includes a small release of dopamine, the reward neurotransmitter in the brain. In this way Chantix dampens down nicotine withdrawal symptoms and cravings. d. Psychological Interventions i. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) 1. Components: a. Psychoeducation b. Relaxation training c. Reinforcement for reaching milestones i. Rewards for successful quitting at regular intervals d. Behavioral plan i. e.g., avoiding temptation situations, confuse the cues 2. “Confuse the cues” a. Example: If you always have a cigarette in the morning with your coffee, break this association. 3. Arrange social support. a. Recruit others to help in supporting you to quit. ii. Motivation Interviewing (Trans theoretical Model) III. Health Benefits of Quitting a. Can smokers regain life expectancy by quitting? YES b. For both men and women, mortality decreases for every year quit. c. Quitting by age 35 can add 7-8 years your life expectancy d. Not just quantity, but also quality e. For women who are quit at least 16 years, mortality may be same as nonsmokers. f. Benefits not as great for men as for women, but close Bold Book Vocabulary Chapter Thirteen: Using Alcohol and Other Drugs 1. Addiction – Dependence on a drug such that stopping its use results in withdrawal symptoms 2. Alcohol Dehydrogenase – A liver enzyme that metabolizes alcohol into aldehyde 3. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase – An enzyme that converts aldehyde to acetic acid 4. Amphetamines – A type of stimulant drug 5. Anabolic Steroids – Steroid drugs that increase muscle bulk and decrease body fat but also has toxic effects 6. Aversion Therapy – A type of behavioral therapy, based on classical conditioning techniques, that uses some aversive stimulus to counter-condition the patient’s response 7. Barbiturates – Synthetic sedative drugs used medicinally to induce sleep 8. Cirrhosis – A liver disease resulting in the production of nonfunctional scar tissue 9. Cocaine – A stimulant drug extracted from the cocoa plant 10. Delirium Tremens – A condition induced by alcohol withdrawal and characterized by excessive trembling, sweating, anxiety, and hallucinations 11. Delta Alcoholism – A drinking pattern characterized by an inability to abstain from alcohol 12. Dependence – A condition in which a drug becomes incorporated into the functioning of the body’s cells so that it is needed for “normal functioning” 13. Disulfiram – A drug that causes an aversive reaction when taken with alcohol; used to treat alcoholism; Antabuse 14. Dopamine – a neurotransmitter that is especially important in meditating the reward associated with taking psychoactive drugs 15. Ethanol – The variety of alcohol used in beverages 16. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome – A pattern of physical and psychological symptoms found in infants whose mothers drank heavily during pregnancy 17. Gamma Alcoholism – A drinking pattern characterized by loss of control 18. Opiates – Drugs derived from the opium poppy, including codeine, morphine, and heroin 19. Sedatives – Drugs that induce relaxation and sometime intoxication by lowering the activity of the brain, the neurons, the muscles, the heart, and even by slowing the metabolic rate 20. Spontaneous Remission – Disappearance of problem behavior or illness without treatment 21. Tolerance – The need for increasing levels of a drug in order to produce constant level of effect 22. Tranquilizers – A type of sedative drug that reduces anxiety 23. Withdrawal – Adverse physiological reactions exhibited when a drug-dependent person stops using that drug; the withdrawal symptoms are typically unpleasant and opposite to the drug’s effects
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