Modern Europe Notes 10
Modern Europe Notes 10 HIST 3480
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Paige Holub on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 3480 at University of Colorado Denver taught by Richard Smith in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Modern Europe in History at University of Colorado Denver.
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Date Created: 04/17/16
Paige DeWitt-Holub 04/11/16 “Fascism Italy 1919, Sit-Down Strikes B. Mussolini (1883-1943) Fascio “Marchon Rome” Oct., 1922 Great Depression, 1929-39 Overproduction and Under-consumption Deflation Black Tuesday, Oct. 24, 1929 1929-32 H. Hoover Britain Gold Standard Keynes (1883-1946) Germany Bruning Roosevelt (1932-45) WPA Social Security .” -For the papers, if you are doing a direct quote, make sure you are doing a direct quote citation -1. Fascism/Nazism does a great deal of rejection of the Enlightenment ideals as well as a rejection of belief is rationality/reason, “Classical Liberalism, parliamentary government, democracy” -2. Fascism = nationalistic, territorial, expansionism -3. openly “violent” as a means to achieve their ends, natural selection in a bloody way -4. anti-Semitic, racisms -5. “strong, right-wing authoritarian style governments” -did agree with profits in a way that needed to be monitored (anti labor unions) -6. anti-communism -appeal: this set of ideas historically pertains majorly to the middle class, although fascist propaganda grabbed those of all classes based on their struggles -Italy, Hitler and the Nazis (1933) – Wednesday 1 Please note that all notes in quotations are taken from the board of Professor Smith’s classroom. -fascism persists in Spain starting in the late 1930’s, Portugal, France, smaller Eastern-European states (Hungary) – fascism spreads even to Britain, Scandinavia -“Henry Ford” – racist, fascist -the rise of Italian Fascism: -allied in WWI with Austria/Germany, but by 1913, Italy finds himself on the Allies side -Italy is in shambles economically, based on a weak industrial economy that the gathering of troops has weakened even more so -by 1939, Italy has a high-inflation of consumer goods -100,000+ veterans of the war return to Italy -1919, the year of Italy and American history were ever changed, widespread unrest with squatters in land that might even already have been occupied by agriculturalists -1919, Turin, many stop and sit factory strikes enabled by labor unions -some are affiliated with socialisms -this happens until 1920/21 wintertime, with militant control of factories -1919, the sit-down strikes -1921, the idea of Italian-Liberal Democracy is faltering, the government cannot protect the property or wages that its citizens have ownership with alignment of Italy’s premise -Mussolini, from specialized niche speeches to nationalism and a “private militia” of WWI veterans -the Italian Renaissance and Roman Golden Ages are supposed to be utilized -“a bundle of sticks” – Fascism symbolism -1922 in these factories, there are militias sent by Mussolini to win a bloody victory over the labor unions - “to keep the sense of turmoil in front of people”, to “prolong” and create an image of a savior figure ($$$$$$$$$) aristocrats -“March on Rome” Oct., 1922 – Mussolini’s militia steal places, eventually find themselves in Rome with ~35,000 militant fighters -Mussolini is placed in a provisional place of power, “emergency powers” for 1923 -> yet, the constitution is scrapped for the fact of a new age of dictatorial, uni-party (all other parties outlawed), public schools (Mussolini’s propaganda), Chamber of Deputies outlawed, methodological economy, no more labor unions/strikes and now the wages are nationally fixed -overall the economy did not face much positive growth -Mussolini is seen internationally, even in the U.S., was seen as a positive figure of restorative “order”, Andrew Mellon in U.S. – budget, labor unrest is all gone -the U.S. Great Depression effects the world, the U.S. economy is relatively predictable and profitable until the overproduction and under consumption occurs -deflation -as early as 1926/27 major business moderately industrial fat cats were moving these investments after the industries of this “older” industry, in favor of a new stock market hope -by the 1930’s, prices drop, small agriculturalists begin to lesser, prices of food get consistently cheaper, to the point where we reach 1950’s prices -“selling of farms in the 1920’s” = a result of overproduction and under- consumption -Combine was created that made farming more effective -People were taking out their investment from the other markets, and then more people are invested in large quantities for the stock markets, even smaller people could invest -share prices begin to fall, gradually than all at once -borrowed at 5%, $ but the share prices reach a sharp decline, everyone tries to run out of this, collapse in share prices increase in suicide rates of high investors -FDIC, no bank insurance protection agency -1929-1932 -Herbert Hoover -~”top 5% of banks control 50% of annual control” -banks lose about 90% prestige and purpose -“standard response for this is to stop government spending” -exacerbating factors: 1. consumer spending, 2. government spending, 3. business investment, 4. net spending -“as consumer spending begins to dry up, businesses begin to close down their factories, which ultimately decreases their demands, then unemployment begins to go up” -25% of people are about unemployed at the times of 1932 -1930’s Britain cuts government excess purchases, but the prices have deflated nearly 25% -the Labor Party cuts government spending, of national salaries (teachers, etc.) -the gold standard everywhere in Europe and America is a deflating commodity, even in Britain -people demand the British government exchanges their pounds (2.5 mil.) to gold, which is not a realistic exchange for the foundation of their monetary unit, and to make their exports more cheap -the British government is advised to do more by John Maynard Keynes, and he advises the government to stop cutting, but to spend on the red line to instill a demand for consumerism in the people again -Keynes (think: 1930’s international U.S. influence) -the same example was set in Germany – in the mid-late 20’s, the economy of Germany survives through U.S. loans and private investors sell more assistance -eventually this collapses, Heinrich Bruning, 1930, “austerity regime” – utilized Weimar-era emergency clause to rule over Parliament, without promoting Parliamentary autonomy and thus the spending is cut and cut to the point where there are Nazis (right) and a radical Germany Communist Party (left) -FDR, enters Congress authoritarily and follows Keyne’s suggestion if you made over $125,000, it was first taxed at 25% by Hoover, Roosevelt by 79% -in 1922, the wealthiest 1% controlled 44.2, amount of 1% drops until the 60’s 70’s -during the Roosevelt administration, there is an effort to funnel money from the “Works Progress Initiative”, 124,000 bridges, 125,000 public buildings, 8,000 parks, runways, industry, Red Rocks was a WPA, original Boulder wings of WPA efforts -original FDR charter is that the Social Security administration is that the Congress can change the social security administration – ways to ensure the recipients receive money beyond 2033, raise incomes $110,000 “Weimar, July 1919 SPD 1918, Sept. “Stabbeo in the Back” Nov. 3, 1918 Nov. 11, Armistice Spartacist Revolt, Jan. 1919 Rosa Luxemburg (1871-1919) March, 1919 Kapp Putsch, 1920 Treaty of Versailles Reparations $33 B Hyper Inflation, 1923 Adolph Hitler (1889-1945) Nazi/NSDAP Munich, 1923 Mein Kampf Lebensraum Bruning, 1930-32 Austerity 1930 NDSAP KPD 1931 Reichstag Storm Troopers Volk Holocaust” -July 1919 Germany gains a new constitutionally backed independence with the women’s right to vote -the democratic style of this new legislation is only building upon the structure of the late 19 century ->bureaucratic, university functioning, military, bordering areas (Prussia wealthy land-owners), oligopolies -1918, September and the war is still happening but the German military is back on their side of the Rhine River after being pushed back by the French, and the German defeat realized their part of the defeat was close by and so they began to accept defeat in strategic ways (leader resigns) and then the military SPD (Social Democratic Party) takes control of the government “provisionally” -SPD were foundationally communists, with the idea of reformation within the government, and Treaty of Versailles -eventually, the impartial military avoids to take any reclamation over the result of these signings, and then begins the propaganda… German Socialists appeased to sign what they were actually winning (interesting to think about how the Germans did not experience invasions within their own territory) so people like Hitler place the demand for blame on those moderate dissenters -Nov. 3 , 1918, the British industrial/mercantile/export economic standing dominates that of Germany --- then on this day, the sailors of a northern Germany decide to abandon their standing by means of mutiny -concurrently, German farmers and soldiers take on a communist perspective of the masses mobilizing -> where is the Nazi stealing of power? Somewhere a seed is here -the German Spartist League was immensely left-wing, considering a triumphant seize of the government- Lenin style ->many (Rosenburg (1871-1919), Karl Leibnich) and other figureheads but not much mobilization and are ultimately led to their death -SPD government ensure deaths of Rosenburg, Leibnich because they clearly do not get along with immensely left-wing communists -the SPD and the German military resultingly decide to merge in power to protect the purpose of order -March 1919, there is an upswing of uprisings, and the SPD’s solution is to order the deaths of the street protestors -Kapp Putsch, 1920 – decide to deviate from Weimar, but rather than successfully gaining a stronghold on the government through military seizure, the Kapp Putsch is negatively effective in the way that they try to manage allowing their voices to be heard (shuts down infrastructure, electricity and transportation is undone for months) -the Treaty of Versailles is considered unacceptable to the people of Germany, reparations (all responsibility and 1923 charges (33 billion dollars – 19 trillion dollars today practically so this is unnecessarily an amount that represents all the money in the world) -owingly, French and British are also to pay U.S. -also, everything had to be paid in gold – thus, Germany printing money constantly -French invasion threat looming -thus, this German state is conflicted with how to handle this situation, because this is an unexpected, unprecedented level of hyper-inflation (German Marks) -Hitler – Austrian, failed and rejected painter, decides to join the army and this leads him to the Munich Center of a relatively dangerous army -in 1919, he joins a small “Worker’s German Army” -politically maneuvers his way into a position of leadership in the Nazi/NSDAP (originally German’s Workers Party) -Nazi (National Socialists Worker’s Party) – not an argument of socialist -Age of Nationalist -> socialism is popular, so this word is appropriated for large business sentiments in conjunction with nationalistic, fascist, Nazism retrograde (no contemporary problems are sensible) -at the end of the war, new controversial discussions start in a beer hall in Munich, Hitler is sent to five years of prison (“gets out early for good behavior”) he writes Mein Kampf (political plea of too sensationalized value, which is considered a “Nazi Bible”) by the end of the 1930’s this is translated into almost any language -those who could read this initially were few and far in-between, but honestly those who could read this racist (eugenified improper equation) separate divisions of society -dichotomy - Western European (Spanish probably below, South Americans) Americans were controversial (not into Irish…etc.) bottom of the stratosphere would include (maybe) Native Americans, Asians, and Blacks………………………….. Slavic people, Eastern European, Communists, Jewish People (lowest) (sub-humans) -Hitler politically pleaded for bio-logical “purity” of races – Lebenstraum – Western Russia, Ukraine – attempts to clear the land for the super-race - German economy is briefly rejuvenated -Heimlich Bruning becomes the Chancellor of Germany – and he imposes a “Regime of Austerity” and the economy continues to collapse -the political parties in Germany are immensely changing – dichotomized leftist (Worker’s Party, Nazis) and rightists (German Peasant Party, SPD) -in the 1932 election, the German Nazi Party got about 6 million votes, the communist party received nearly a million less, but no one could sustain support of functions -“in 1931, Hitler and the Nazis made a deal with some of the cartel owners in the Rhine Valley” – “funneled some cash” – the Nazi Party wanted to break up unions, to gain control of the economy -Hitler then becomes a more powerful figure -by 1933, there are about 1 million stormtroopers/brown shirts (3x of food, place to sleep, just a place really but times were rough) -NAZIS AND KPD, 1933, times are rough, some time before this, the Chancellor promotes Hitler -fire-bombing, Reichstag building burned down… and the fire was blamed on the German Communist Party (historically considered to be set by a Dutch communist radical crazy) -“then, the Nazis suspend civil liberties, expel communist delegates” -they tear up the Weimar Constitution, everything that had been in place as provisional or otherwise -across the street from the Reichstag building is the Nazi Party- there is an underground passageway underneath this building filled with volatile or fire- starting materials -started killing people in the streets, blamed the Treaty of Versailles on the economic and other struggles -the reparations, inflation, stigma, are all sourced to a “Jewish Communist Banker’s Conspiracy to Hold Germany Down” – and if you looked at the reparations, you could find a connection in this corruption (some of the bankers repaid by West Europe were Jewish bankers) -Weimar Regime was claimed to be a figurehead, and replaced this with a “true” democracy, based on the people (Volk) -the Nazi Party romanticized peasant life in a way that was inclusive to them, expansionism desired to Austria, other bordering territories -99% of the people in Germany supported the Nazis, not much politicization …. -1935, Jewish people are no long considered citizens in Germany and Italy -German Jewish people were typically living comfortably, until this moment and then this ultimately lead to the Holocaust -work camps, worked to death (6 million Jewish people are worked to death), 1 million Polish people, 1 million “unidentified communists (war captives”), Romanian “gypsies” (a couple 100,000/Indo-Europeans), Gays and Lesbians, Anyone mentally/physically not considered “normal”, disabled -> sick euthanasia, not assisted suicide, because these people did not want to die -when the German military moves into Russia, to create their paradise, they send many people to from the already occupied people in Russia
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