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Chapter 14: Personality

by: Bailey Gabrish

Chapter 14: Personality Psych 1010

Marketplace > Science > Psych 1010 > Chapter 14 Personality
Bailey Gabrish

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About this Document

This covers the chapter in the book and the lecture in class.
Introduction to Psychology
Melinda Fabian
Class Notes
Psychology, Science, Social Science, Introduction to Psychology
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Gabrish on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1010 at a university taught by Melinda Fabian in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views.


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Date Created: 04/17/16
Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts Chapter 14: Personality History of Personality  Personality – individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting that  persists over time and across situations  Sigmund Freud was a Vienna physician who questioned if physical symptoms could be  caused purely by psychological factors  Psychodynamic Theory – view personality with a focus on the unconscious and the  importance of childhood experiences  Psychoanalysis – the theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to  unconscious motives and conflicts; techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions (Freud) Freud’s View of the Unconscious Mind  Unconscious – reservoir of mainly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and  memories (Freud) o Today, unconscious is known as information processing we are unaware of  Free Association – in psychoanalyses, it is a method of exploring the unconscious in  which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind no matter how trivia or  embarrassing  The mind is mostly hidden as thoughts are repressed o We repress memories we don’t wish to acknowledge that influence us greatly Freud’s View of Personality  Human personality arises from conflicts between impulse and restraint  Id – the reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that strives to satisfy basic sexual and  aggressive drives o Operates on pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification  Ego – largely conscious, executive part of personality that mediates among the demands  of the id, superego, and reality o Operates on reality principle satisfying the id’s desires in ways that will  realistically bring pleasure rather than pain  Superego – part of personality that represents internalized ideals and provides standards  for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations o Acts as a moral compass Freud’s Developmental Stages  Psychosexual Stages – childhood stages of development during which the id’s pleasure  seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones (sensitive areas of the body) Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts o Oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital stages  Oedipus Complex – according to Freud, a boy’s sexual desires toward his mother and  feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father o To fix this, a boy begins to identify with his father o Electra Complex for girls Stage Focus Oral (0­18 months) Pleasure centers are on the mouth (sucking,  biting, chewing) Anal (18­36 months) Bowel and bladder elimination, coping with  demands for control Phallic (3­6 years) Genitals, coping with incestuous sexual  feelings Latency (6­puberty) Phase of dominant sexual feelings Genital (after puberty) Maturation of sexual interests  Identification – process by which children incorporate their parents’ values into their  developing superegos  Fixation – lingering focus of pleasure­seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage in which conflicts were unresolved Freud’s Defense Mechanisms  Defense Mechanisms – psychoanalytic theory that the ego’s protective methods of  reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality o The ego represses anxiety concerning unacceptable impulses o All defense mechanisms function indirectly and unconsciously  Repression – basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety­ arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories o Freud tried to get unconscious themes projected into conscious through free  association and dream analysis o Influences all other defense mechanisms Defense Mechanism Unconscious Process Example Regression Retreat to infantile sex stage  Little boy reverts to thumb  where some psychic energy  sucking on his first day of  remains fixated school Reaction Formation Switch unacceptable impulses Regress angry feelings by  to opposites displaying exaggerated  friendliness Projection Disguising threatening  Thief thinks everyone else is  impulses by attributing them  a thief to others Rationalization Offering self­justifying  Habitual drinker says she  explanations in place of the  drinks with her friends just to  Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts real, more threatening,  be sociable unconscious reasons for one’s actions Displacement  Shifting sexual or aggressive  A little girl kicks the family  impulses toward a more  dog after her mom sends her  acceptable/ less threatening  to her room object or person Denial Refusing to believe painful  Partner denies evidence of his realities loved one’s affair Freud’s Ideas and His Followers  Neo­Freudians broke off from Freud in two distinct ways o Placed more emphasis on the conscious mind o Doubted that sex and aggression were all­consuming motivations  Collective Unconscious – shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species’  history (Carl Jung) o Archetypes  Projective Tests  Projective Tests – personality tests that provide ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger  protection of one’s inner dynamics o Reveal the inner workings of the mind o Rorschach Test  Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) – projective test in which people express their inner  feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes (Murray) o Can be used to assess achievement motivation  Rorschach Inkblot Test – most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, seeks to  identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots (Hermann  Rorschach) o Results do not link well to traits (validity) and different raters get different results  (reliability) Contemporary Psychologists on Freud  Development is lifelong and not fixed in childhood  Freud underestimated peer influence o Dreams/Freudian slips do not reveal unconscious wishes  Suppressed sexuality does not cause disorders psychologically o There are few testable hypotheses for this  Freud fails to predict behavior and traits  Repression is a rare mental response to trauma Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts o High stress and the associated hormones enhance memory Modern Research on the Unconscious  The unconscious involves o Schemas that control perceptions and interpretations o Priming by stimuli o Right hemisphere activity in split brain patients o Implicit memories o Emotions o Stereotypes  Terror­Management Theory – the theory of death­related anxiety that explores people’s  emotional and behavioral responses to reminders of their impending death Humanistic Psychology on Personality  Humanistic Theories – view personality with a focus on the potential for healthy and  personal growth o Study healthy people through self­reported experiences and feelings o First there was Freud, then Behaviorism, then Humanism  Maslow’s hierarchy of needs o Seek self­actualization – the ultimate psychological needs that arise after basic  physical and psychological needs are met and self­esteem is achieved or the  motivation to fulfill one’s potential  Carl Roger’s person­centered perspective o Growth promoting environment requires three conditions  Genuineness  Acceptance or unconditional positive regard toward another  Empathy o Self­Concept – all thoughts and feelings about ourselves  Who am I?  If self­concept is positive, one perceives the world positively Humanistic Psychology’s Sense of Self  Study people by asking them to fill out questionnaires to evaluate self­concept o When ideal and actual self are noted as similar, self­concept is positive  Interviews and intimate conversation provide understanding of unique experiences Influences and Criticisms of Humanistic Psychology  Humanistic psychology influences popular psychology  Criticisms o Concepts are vague and subjective o Emphasis on individualism could lead to self­indulgence, selfishness, and less  moral restraint Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts  Humanistic psychologists believe you must first love yourself to love  someone else o Naïve and fails to understand human capacity for evil  Rogers saw evil as a phenomenon and not as a trait Traits  Trait – a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by  self­report inventories and peer reports o Trait Theory of Personality – traits can be measured and differ from person to  person  More concerned with describing traits than explaining them  Myers­Briggs Type Indicator – identify statistically correlate clusters of behavior o Many traits are a function of two dimensions  Factor Analysis – tap components of intelligence  Brain­imaging procedures Personality Inventories  Personality Inventories – questionnaire in which people respond to items that gauge a  wide range of feelings and behaviors to assess selected personality traits  Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) – most widely researched and  clinically used of all personality tests o Originally developed to identify emotional disorders but now used for many other screening purposes o Empirically Derived – test developed by testing a pool of items then selecting  those that discriminate between groups Traits and Personality Variation  How stable are traits? o Personality develops until it is stable in adulthood o Neuroticism (emotional instability) decreases with age and conscientiousness  increases o Varies in situations and the average behavior across many situations mostly  describes you  We change interests in different situations  How heritable are traits? o About 50% o Animals can have traits  Do these traits reflect differing brain structures? o Brain regions correlate to traits o Extraversion and shyness are correlated to the autonomic nervous system’s  reactivity which is easily triggered o Extraverts seek stimulation because their brain arousal is low Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts  Have these traits changed over time? o Culture shifts influence personality shifts  How well do these traits apply to various cultures? o Features of personality are common to all humans  Do the big five traits predict our actual behaviors? o Conscientiousness, consciousness, neuroticism, openness, extraversion o Yes o Conscientiousness leads to good grades and healthy behaviors, extraversion leads  to being social, happiness leads to low neuroticism, high extraversion,  agreeableness and satisfaction Personality Across Time and Situation  There is stability in personality  Traits are stable, behavior changes  Traits that continue o Music preferences o Bedrooms and office organization o Online spaces o Written communications Social­Cognitive Theory  Social­Cognitive Perspective – views behavior as influenced by the interaction between  people’s traits (including their thinking) and their social context (Albert Bandura) o Personality is an interaction of traits (thinking) and social contexts (observation)  Focus on how we and the environment interact  Reciprocal Determinism – interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and  environment o Back and forth influences with no primary causes  Interactions of individuals and the environment 1. Different people choose different environments 2. Our personalities shape how we interpret and react to events 3. Our personalities help create situations to which we react  Behavior emerges from the interplay of external and internal influences Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts Biological Influences Psychological Influences  Genetically determined   Learned responses temperament  Unconscious thought   Autonomic nervous system processes  Brain activity  Expectations and  interpretations Personality Social­Cultural Influences  Childhood experiences  Influence of situation  Cultural expectations  Social support Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts Criticisms of Social­Cognitive Theories  Person’s past behavior patterns in similar situations  Fails to appreciate inner traits  Biology matters Theory People Assumptions View Assessment Psychoanalytic Freud Unconscious  Id, ego, superego Free association, leads to  projective tests,  disorders,  dream analysis defense  mechanisms Psychodynamic Adler, Horney,  Unconscious  Interplay of  Projective tests  Jung and conscious,  conscious and  and therapy childhood,  unconscious defense  mechanisms Humanistic Rogers,  Healthy people  Basic human  Questionnaires  Maslow strive for self­ needs lead to self­ and therapy realization actualization Trait Allport,  Stable  Big Five – Personality  Eysenck, Costa, characteristics  Conscientiousness inventories McCrae due to genes , consciousness,  neuroticism,  openness,  extraversion Social­Cognitive Bandura Traits and  Conditioning and  Past behaviors society observational  learning The Self  Self – in contemporary psychology, the center of personality, organizer of thoughts,  feelings, and actions  Spotlight Effect – overestimating others’ noticing and evaluating of our appearances,  performances, and blunders  Self­Esteem – feelings of high or low self­worth  Self­Efficacy – sense of competence or effectiveness o People who are down on themselves tend to be down on others  Success requires optimism o Excessive optimism can blind us to real risks Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts o People are most overconfident when incompetent  Self­Serving Bias – readiness to perceive oneself favorably o People accept more responsibility for good deeds and successes than bad ones or  failures o Most people see themselves as better than average o Less found in Asia and modest countries  Inflate confidence in judgments and believe more flattering descriptions of ourselves  Overestimate how desirable we would act  Make better contributions to our group  Group pride  Narcissism – excessive self­love and self­absorption


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