Environmental Studies 3
Environmental Studies 3
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This 6 page Reader was uploaded by Deborah Notetaker on Friday April 11, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of California Santa Barbara taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 146 views.
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Date Created: 04/11/14
April 8 2014 Today s Music Danse Bacchanale from Samson amp Delilah Ballet Pre biblical music By Saint Saenes 0 The Axes p177 Ch 10 18 o NorthSouth dominant Americas amp Africa narrow long term transfer 0 EastWest dominant Eurasia allowed the transference of grains food production technologies horses amp cattle etc Culture disease etc rice transferred much faster than corn 0 Temperate zones Tropic of Cancer to the Polar Circles across Eurasia East to West is mostly temperate zones that are similar in climate 0 Ecological barriers Desert to Jungle in Africa amp Coastal zone to Desert in Americas serve as barriers 0 Contagion Ch 4 amp 11 o The spreading of germs through contact 0 Microbes the fittest microbes find ways to adapt and change to strengthen amp find their way to another host I First 2 pages of Ch 11 I domestication of large mammals cattle transference of cow diseases to humans through openings in the skin 0 Measeles tuberculosis smallpox I p207 deadly gifts of livestock amp it from cows 0 In uenza pertusses malaria I in uenza comes from birds amp swine I pertusses from swine I malaria from chicken amp ducks 0 Immunities I People with immunities passed on these immunities to their descendants 9 they caught the disease but didn t die amp simply carried these diseases to other countries 0 Germs Guns amp Steel I The germs were a powerful weapon European settlers had 0 Mesopotamia o Tigris River amp Euphrates River Mesopotamia means land between the rivers Surpluses the storing of crops for future use Scarcityabsence of abundance Cradle of civilization cradle of Western civilization Babylonians Assyrians Sumerians I The people that were in Mesopotamia 0 Babylon Urok Ur the major cities in Mesopotamia I strong economy amp culture based on agriculture 0 O O O 0 Stone Age I They were still in the stone age but were the first to use stone tools to build amp plow amp etc I Considered the Neolithic period Modem Stone Age o Irrigation systems I As the snow melted amp water rises they built dikes amp dams to hold back the water they plant the crops in the damp soil amp did this everywhere 0 Wheat millet barley I Cereals were the bases 0 Civilization amp wilderness I The walled cities were built to protect themselves amp to protect their crop surpluses o Warfare I Religion I Water rights territory I Mountain people marauded through I The bigger the citystate the more slaves they had 0 After constantly watering the crop fields with water from the mountains the soil was growing in salinity because the water had so much mineral content after several thousands of years the fields no longer grew wheat and barley I Environmental factors the first Rise amp Fall of a nation due to technology 0 Ancient Egypt Ch 14 o Protodynastic period 5400 BC I Old Kingdom I Middle Kingdom I New Kingdom 1000 BC 0 Band tribe chiefdom 5500 BC state I They advanced much faster than other civilizations because of technological advantages they had I Band the system in which nobody is really in charge I Tribe some ppl in charge but loosely I Chiefdom higher level of organization in which there is a chief I State dictatorkingelected official has a state level infrastructure in which ppl served the government 3500 BC 0 Kleptocracy I higher level of organization the more able the society were able to conquer o Pharaohs 0 Great Pyramid of Khufu 2700 BC I 500 ft tall 0 Giza I Pyramids of Giza o Sphinx I 4700 years old 0 Natural irrigation I Egypt irrigated naturally the river fell amp rose watering their crops 0 Warfare amp slavery I Had large professional soldiers constant war with other nations I The cause of Egypt s fall corruption warfare slavery April 10 2014 Mesopotamia by the B52s Today s Music King Tut by Steve Martin 0 Dynastic China ch 16 o Neolithic period I began in the Neolithic the new Stone Age period amp had sophisticated stone tools moved to the Bronze Age soon after following Eurasia o Eurocentrism in readings Diamond amp Eurasiacentrism o Pigs chickens water buffalo I water buffalocow family amp used for plow power fertilizer etc o Silkworms ducks geese tea peaches citrus fruits rice I First time silkworms were domesticated brought European traders to China I First time tea tree amp citrus fruits was cultivated I 34000BCE rice came to China 0 Dynastic culture I Able to achieve state level culture by at least 2000 BC if not earlier I Dynasties are ruling families in China they defeated other dynasties to be in power 0 Grand Canal I Technologically advanced I Had a lot of water amp so concentrated on controlling water by building canals 9 used for travel I Built from last Gold millennia I Great example of public works 0 Great Wall I Goes the breadth of northsouth I Built to keep the Mongols out 0 Martial Arts I The spread of China s culture is seen in the martial arts I Villagers were always in threat of invaders amp so martial arts was heavily practiced o WushuKung Fu I Oldest form of martial arts 0 Warfare I Warring families were constantly trying to get powerkeep power 0 China was the oldest nation East of the Fertile Crescent 0 Gilgamesh Ch 12 pg 362363 0 Epic of Gilgamesh 2000 BC or BCE I Written language Eurasia then China came next 2000 years later I The first story ever written down written in Mesopotamian cuneiforms on 12 clay tablets I Story of a king in Mesopotamia named Gilgamesh he was the king of Urok o Sumerians I First to develop written language I Probably formed for accounting counting number of crops etc 0 I First trading of grain occurred within this nation I Beer 3000 BCE Clay tablets Cuneiforrns The rst written thing Gilgamesh I 23 god 13 human demigod I A young king that oppresses his people 0 Urok I Gilgamesh ruled Urok o Anu I Sky god that the people appealed to o Enkidu I Created by Anu a wild man that has the strength of l2 men who came down to challenge Gilgamesh o Shamhat I A prostitute that was sent to seduce Enkidu amp succeeds After he is seduced he is tamed amp loses his physical strength I Includes story that is similar to Noah o Papyrus I Indigenous to Egypt amp Middleeast Ege family I Can be used for twine boats food or like paper written with ink I Found to be used for writing 0 Parchment I BCE period dry animal skin lambs more durable than papyrus 0 Paper I Flat sheet made by plant fiber I First used in Eurasia amp first developed in China I Tremendous environmental advantage for the nations that developed writing Indus Valley Historical Background amp Env 2500 BCE 1600 BCE part of Eurasia western part of India Began in the Bronze Age 0 Indus River Valley I Biggest of the civilizations in the Fertile crescent o Saraswati River I Biggest river that ows through the civilization 0 Harappa I City 25 35 000 people 0 Mohenjodaro I City 25 35 000 people 0 Written language I We still haven t gured out how their alphabet works I Very advanced amp created with purpose 0 Religion I very little is known about the Indus valley religion nothing is known about their gods and temples or anything OOOO 0 Urban planning I Mohenjodaro amp Harappa both have similar layout I Streets sewer lines pools amp bricks were all consistent Millions of bricks were made exactly the same way I Even water control was constructed the same way in both cities 0 Water I More water than Mesopotamia but had less than China I Water control was very important storing water was important 0 Sanitation I Had open sewer line the water carried the waste out of the city and down the stream I Sewer lines amp latrines 0 Pottery I Had big ovens kilns I Amazing amp sophisticated pottery had plenty of clay amp soil I Used for storage eating utensils decorations monuments amp had great value 0 Crafts I Made items amp traded I Advanced crafts made the society more materialistic I Good with metals amp so must have been fairly advanced in science I Made tools amp figurines I Used bronze to fill in teeth I They found no military metal no shields swords etc they didn t nd any cemeteries or evidences of kings or royalty 0 Trade routes I Ships amp go up the Persian gulf plenty of exportsimports I Used a seal to stamp it with an Indus Valley Seal I Most exported agriculture foodplants 0 Agriculture I Mostly traded wheat barley oats millet sorghum grapes dates walnuts almonds amp cotton I Also had cattle sheep goats chickens camels water buffalo horses donkey 0 Indus Valley Decline o Invasion I 17001500 BCE the Aryans came out of the Caspian Sea I Probably invaded but did not destroy the nation probably just tipped the balance against the indus valley people 0 The Aryans I Mountain amp nomadic people they had horses to raid amp conquer o The Vedic Texts I Written in sand script possibly written by Aryans but probably written by Indus Valley descendants I 800900BCE About Hinduism religion amp talks about the Aryans invasion 0 Overexploitation of natural resources I Of wood amp pastureland Deforestation I Used for harnesses bricks etc probably deforestation 9 also leads to soil erosion because of loss of trees Wood for baking Bricks I 5million bricks to build the 2 major cities made with clay amp straw then fired in a really hot oven 9 used a lot of wood to build these cities Overgrazing I A lot of livestock this large animal population probably overgrazed then because of lack of food the animals may have died off then the humans who depended on the livestock for food were affected Climate shifts Droughts I Waterbased society they cannot last too long without rain Flooding I This is an area that may have been wiped out by oods Monsoon area causes major ooding Earthquakes I Very active seismic area probably called major earthquakes amp even shifted the rivers many miles away leaving the cities without water A cautionary tale
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