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PSYC Ch. 14 notes

by: Maycie Tidwell

PSYC Ch. 14 notes PSYC 10213

Maycie Tidwell
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

These notes cover what we learned in chapter 14!
General Psychology
Class Notes
PSYC, general, Psychology
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maycie Tidwell on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 10213 at Texas Christian University taught by Wehlburg in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Science at Texas Christian University.


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Date Created: 04/17/16
PSYC Ch. 14 notes: Psychological Disorders People are fascinated by the exceptional, the unusual, and the abnormal. This fascination may be caused by two reasons: 1. During various moments we feel, think, and act like an abnormal individual. 2. Psychological disorders may bring unexplained physical symptoms, irrational fears, and suicidal thoughts. To study the abnormal is the best way of understanding the normal. 1. There are 450 million people suffering from psychological disorders (WHO, 2004). 2. Depression and schizophrenia exist in all cultures of the world. Mental health workers view psychological disorders as persistently harmful thoughts, feelings, and actions. When behavior is deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional psychiatrists and psychologists label it as disordered. 1. Deviant behavior (going naked) in one culture may be considered normal, while in others it may lead to arrest. 2. Deviant behavior must accompany distress. 3. If a behavior is dysfunctional it is clearly a disorder. Ancient Treatments of psychological disorders include trephination, exorcism, being caged like animals, being beaten, burned, castrated, mutilated, or transfused with animal’s blood. Ex: Trephination (boring holes into skull to remove evil forces) The Medical Model Philippe Pinel (1745-1826) from France, insisted that madness was not due to demonic possession, but an ailment of the mind. (they worked hard to change how awful the asylums were) When physicians discovered that syphilis led to mental disorders, they started using medical models to review the physical causes of these disorders. 1. Etiology: Cause and development of the disorder. 2. Diagnosis: Identifying (symptoms) and distinguishing one disease from another. 3. Treatment: Treating a disorder in a psychiatric hospital. 4. Prognosis: Forecast about the disorder. Classifying psyc. Disorders: The American Psychiatric Association rendered a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) to describe psychological disorders. ** The most recent edition, DSM-IV-TR (Text Revision, 2000), describes 400 psychological disorders compared to 60 in the 1950s. Labeling Psychological Disorders: 1. Critics of the DSM-IV argue that labels may stigmatize individuals. (ex: asylum baseball team having to wear “asylum” jackets) 2. Labels may be helpful for healthcare professionals when communicating with one another and establishing therapy. 3. “Insanity” labels raise moral and ethical questions about how society should treat people who have disorders and have committed crimes. Anxiety Disorders: Feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety. 1. Generalized anxiety disorder 2. Panic disorder 3. Phobias 4. Obsessive-compulsive disorder 5. Post-traumatic stress disorder Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Symptoms 1. Persistent and uncontrollable tenseness and apprehension. 2. Autonomic arousal. 3. Inability to identify or avoid the cause of certain feelings. Panic Disorder: Symptoms o Minutes-long episodes of intense dread, which may include feelings of terror, chest pains, choking, or other frightening sensations. o Anxiety is a component of both disorders. It occurs more in the panic disorder, making people avoid situations that cause it. Phobias: Marked by a persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation that disrupts behavior. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Persistence of unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and urges to engage in senseless rituals (compulsions) that cause distress. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Four or more weeks of the following symptoms constitute post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): 1. Haunting memories 2. Nightmares 3. Social Withdrawal 4. Jumpy Anxiety 5. Sleep problems Explaining Anxiety Disorders: Freud suggested that we repress our painful and intolerable ideas, feelings, and thoughts, resulting in anxiety. The Learning Perspective: o Learning theorists suggest that fear conditioning leads to anxiety. This anxiety then becomes associated with other objects or events (stimulus generalization) and is reinforced. o Investigators believe that fear responses are inculcated through observational learning. Ex: Young monkeys develop fear when they watch other monkeys who are afraid of snakes. The Biological Perspective: o Natural Selection has led our ancestors to learn to fear snakes, spiders, and other animals. Therefore, fear preserves the species. o Twin studies suggest that our genes may be partly responsible for developing fears and anxiety. Twins are more likely to share phobias. o Generalized anxiety, panic attacks, and even OCD are linked with brain circuits like the anterior cingulate cortex. Dissociative Disorders: Conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings. Symptoms: 1. Having a sense of being unreal 2. Being separated from the body 3. Watching yourself as if in a movie Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID): A disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities, formerly called multiple personality disorder. DID Crithcs: Critics argue that the diagnosis of DID increased in the late 20 century. DID has not been found in other countries. Critics’ Arguments: 1. Role-playing by people open to a therapist’s suggestion. 2. Learned response that reinforces reductions in anxiety. Mood Disorders: Emotional extremes of mood disorders come in two principal forms. 1. Major depressive disorder 2. Bipolar disorder Major Depressive Disorder: o Depression is the “common cold” of psychological disorders. In a year, 5.8% of men and 9.5% of women report depression worldwide. o Major depressive disorder occurs when signs of depression last two weeks or more and is not caused by drugs or medical conditions. Signs Include: 1. Lethargy and fatigue 2. Feelings of worthlessness 3. Loss of interest in family & friends 4. Loss of interest in activities Bipolar Disorder: Formerly called manic-depressive disorder. An alternation between depression and mania signals bipolar disorder.


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