ARTH April 12
ARTH April 12 ARTH 1305
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grecia Sanchez on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARTH 1305 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Max Grossman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see History of Art I in Art at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 04/17/16
April 12 2016 We are beginning the Late Antiquity phase of the Romans. It is the final stage right after the Soldier Emperors. Dates from 284 AD 476 AD. It is the spread of the Christian faith. Various religions practiced at the beginning of it (Pegans, Christians, Egyptians, Baels, etc.), they were like a dozen of religions practiced at the beginning but it all ended into one monotheistic religion. The main reason of the spread of religion is the promise of salvation to all (no requirements were needed to be saved, you were not required to know how to read or write for example) and in an era of total chaos, salvation seemed the most positive choice one made. DURA EUROPOS Known as the Pompeii of the East It was a city which was destroyed (like Pompeii) Destroyed in 256 AD SINAGOGUE Jerusalem was destroyed in 70 AD With this destruction, Jews began spreading themselves among the regions Jews workship inside the buildings (unlike Pegans for example, who workship on the outside, they decorated their temples mostly on the outside) For Jews, it is forbidden to depict God (also a truth in Islam) For Jews, it is fine If you depict stories from the Torah (Five books of the old testament for Jews which have to be read three times a week), but you are not allowed under any circumstance to depict God Stories depicted are read from left to right SAMUEL ANOINTS DAVID The first king David is here These are frescos painted on blasters Figures are depicted iin a simplistic way for a total legibility of the complete story Book says the legs do not correspond to the men, but Dr. Grossman states legs do correspond, so we should state that on the final Figures are simple to keep distractions away from communicating the message of the story Another reason for the simple figures is that you don’t have stylish painters in this stage KIRCHE, CHRISTIAN COMMUNITY HOUSE The major difference between Jews and Christians is that Jews are still waiting for the Messiah to come and Christians believe this messiah is Jesus Christ At this time, there were no churches Rather, Christian communities reunited in private homes Christians were minority at the time, a community was made of 7 people at its maximum Eclesia means a Christian community Titulus is the proper term for the private houses where Christians gathered Inside the titulus, there is always a room destined only for baptisms (baptistery) They also have atriums (courtyards) There are historical and archaeological proof of Christian persecutions, one of them is Edict of Milan which was made in 315 AD, it is a proclamation of Christians stating your freedom at practicing any religion you want without the fear of being persecuted by any ruler, happened at times of Constantine CATACOMB OF PRISCILLA There were underground passageways of strict tufa to accommodate poor people’s bodies at this phase It was illegal to bury someone inside the town/empire, s/he had to be buried outside of town Since it was expensive to bury on land, the majority of the Romans were buried on these catacombs because this land was owned by no one, it was free to all Christians didn’t used to cremate (Romans were the ones cremated), they would bury the intact body on the catacomb 4 million people could fit in here It had like 90 miles of passageways Loculus/loculi was the place where the body was placed, there were little rectangles and they were painted with terracotta At this era, life expectancy was short; most children died before reaching 5 years old, so they were buried at these rectangles For Christians, the date of your death was your birthday because this is the date when you enter to heaven (at each anniversary, your family would gather around and eat dinner) Place was nasty, there were rats, an awful smell, you could get a disease and it was just disgusting to be there Arcosolium was the larger table that could accommodate an entire family, this is the type of tomb you could buy if you had more money But if you had even more money, you could buy an entire cubiculum, which was an entire room to bury your family The best preserved places that show Christian art are catacombs These serve as sources We do not have sources for the early spread of Christianity The paintings are fresco Artworks are influenced by Peganism because they have reclining figures ( Roman and Greek influence of depicting the afterlife figures), at the roof there is Medusa (to protect the cubiculum), you have astronomical figures like Scorpio at the roof, CATACOMB OF DONITICA Church was rebuilt underground Martyrs are the people who died for believing in Christianity Saints are ordinary people who lived all their lives being Christians and because of this, they are honored as saints (people with certain powers towards certain characteristic things in their lives). You can have remains like bones and objects from them, you could pray to these objects. Many saints were buried at catacombs, later they were removed along with Martyrs to be underground only at the churches Saint Peter was buried and later, Constantine built the entire Vatican around his body making it to be under the altar of the Vatican GOOD SHEPERD Good shepherd is Jesus It is depicting here the story of Jona (at Hebrew in the Bible) Since we don’t have an exact description of how Christ looked like, many images have been attributed to him in art Exegesis is this prefiguration of Christ Exegesis is proved in this story of Jona; since Jona was swallowed by a gigantic serpent and spit out three days later, here is the proof Jesus Christ rebirth 3 days It is the mythical signal of Jesus coming to be the Messiah to bring peace Jona is here in the orant position, the position to pray They are praying to Christ for the deceased SARCOPHAGUS JUNIUS BASSUS Pegans were buried cremated in Sarcophagus Christians were buried with body intact at the catacombs This sarcophagus in particular belonged to a Roman administrator This administrator was baptized moments before he died The reliefs shown at this sarcophagus are a mix of pegans and Christians imagery (Old Testament) At the center, Christ is without beard wearing a toga next to Peter (first pope) Christ is stepping above Caelus (pegan god, sky god; giving the message God rules heavens) At the relief below this, the scene of Christ entering Jerusalem in a mula is depicted At the top left, we see the scene of Abraham sacrificing his own son obeying God’s orders (Exegesis) Next to this scene, we see Plaus is going to be beheaded We see on different scenes the arrest of two of the apostles of Jesus, testing both’s faith At the bottom left there are Adam and Eve from the Old Testament; again, we see their faith being tested giving birth to the Original Sin VATICAN CITY Vatican city is a country within a country The surrounding walls delineate the territory of the Vatican Center of the Vatican there is the Saint Peter Basilica At one side we see gardens (belong to the pope) We also see the Sistine Chapel (private chapel of the pope) Plaza Saint Peter is here OLD SAINT PETER’S BASILICA First built church Serves as three purposes: Martyrium (all martyrs are going to be adored here), Funeral Hall (bodies were buried inside the church) and Pilgrimage (you could travel to the holly place to pray to the remains of the saints stood here) Constantine built it in 319 Church really has two influences= aula palatina and basilica
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