SOCY 305 Notes (4/12/16 - 4/14/16)
SOCY 305 Notes (4/12/16 - 4/14/16) SOCY 305 001
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SOCY 305 001
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Lensch on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOCY 305 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Jennifer M. Augustine in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Sociology of the Family in Sociology at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 04/17/16
Heteronormative = assume that men and women fall into natural gendered categories Prevalence of same-sex family (increasingly visible type) o 3.8% Americans --> LGBTQ o 1.8% men --> gay o 1.5% women --> lesbian o 1% --> all couples' households are same-sex Same-sex families with children o Many have children o Estimates range from 19% to 25% Trends: o No data to show trends o Only in 1990, did the U.S. Census add the category of unmarried partner to the household roster o Based on 2000 census, data on unmarried same-sex partner was published o Following the 2010 survey, the census published first data on married same-sex couples, as same sex marriage was not legal in 2000 census For 2020, census is considering including more specific categories: o Same-sex husband/wife/spouse o Same-sex unmarried couple Same-sex relationships are more accepted people with homoerotic desired are less "closeted" o Gay culture --> mainstream o People stay away from "traditional" marriage/relationship Same sex now legal Background: Same-Sex Marriage Early 1990s, effort in Hawaii to legalize same-sex marriage Congress passed Defense of Marriage Act in 1996 o Defined marriage between a man and a woman o No state legally bound to recognize same-sex marriage in another state 2003, Massachusetts ruled that state constitution allowed gay marriage and marriage licenses followed shortly after Many states created legislation that banned gay marriage o 30 state voted to ban gay marriage o 40 states prohibited gay marriage either through legal statute or constitutional amendments Bans were challenged and overturned At this time last year, gay marriage was legal in 37 states DOMA was struck down in December 2015 by Supreme Court (14 amendment) Other Arguments Equal protection Equal rights Ethical and humane Disenfranchises a group of people Should be a separation of church and state One Argument AGAINST It is harmful children Stacey and Biblarz (2001) How are same sex families different Note: ASA Amicus Brief => summarized research on topic Took more critical eye o Said research was polarized Found differences in children's gender/sexual preferences and behaviors What does the public think? Rate of people who favor is increasing Rate of people who oppose it is decreasing Do all gay and lesbian couples WANT to marry? Do all want to have a traditional family (i.e. children) No universal support for same sex marriages See marriage as problematic Reinforce ideology that marriage is proper site for sexual and intimate relations Renders other families as invisible Reading ==>> Stacey (2006) Do gay men want children? o Refuseniks vs. Predestined Fathers vs. Situational Parents Situational Parents => would become parents if situation is right (we don't see as predestined parents) Fewer men see them as predestined parents How do gay men become fathers? (Biological limitations) o Up until now, majority have children through heterosexual relationships before realizing their identity Future --> surrogacy and adoption May see gay men with kids ==>> DECLINE Family Policy A legislative and or programmatic approach to supporting or influencing families Ex). Head Start (pre-k for low income family) What aspects of family can policies change? Family Composition: childbirth, marriage, divorce, adoption, foster care Economic Support: families' abilities to provide for their dependents' basic needs (food, shelter, health care, clothing) Development of Children: parent's ability to nurture, rear, educate children Family Care: families' abilities to care for members and relatives who are ill, frail, disabled Partnered Relationships: Families' ability to foster and maintain committed, stable partner relationships Around the world... Problems of low fertility in some countries High fertility in others... Children's' welfare and rights What are engines of family policy in U.S. Single parenthood Changes in men and women's work => wages Child Poverty Our social safety nets are much lower Do we need to make our tax system at top end of distribution? Tax wealthy more? Contemporary Family Policies 1993 FMLA (Family Medical Leave Act) o More recent policies are rolling out on a local level o Ex). San Francisco recently legislated 6 weeks of paid leave for all parents 1960s Head Start (pre-k for low-income families) o Should we make "universal pre-k" o We do not have child care subsidies o We have dependent care tax deduction Has to be offered by employer 1996 PRWORA: The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act o "Welfare reform" o Foundation => Mother's Aid, 1931 1930s: Women aren't working Widowed women (WWII) Husbands disabled, imprisoned, dead Women didn't have much support 1935 Aid to Families with Dependent Children (ADFC) o Entitlement program o Created by Social Security Act o Cash payments to impoverished families o Began in 1935, ended in 1996 o Only help single mothers (you can't be married) Welfare Reform Welfare benefits expanded Great society (LBJ administration) mid-1960s: social welfare movement and war on poverty o Head Start 1965 o Food stamps (now SNAP --> Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program) o Medicaid/Medicare What Precipitated Legislation? 1. Shift in extent of women receiving benefits were deserving of it 2. "Welfare Queen" --> minority woman, getting fat off welfare system, have kids just to get benefits 3. 2 ways out of poverty: a. 1. Work b. 2. Marriage Conservative Perspective AFDC encouraged dependency (no time limit, payments too high) Encourage recipients --> have more kids Liberal AFDC causes poor people --> unstable to become self-sufficient Major Changes in Welfare End of welfare as an entitlement Replaced AFDC with TANF (Temporary Aid to Needy Family) Block grants to states o Penalties for not moving people to work o Bonuses for reducing nonmarital births and abortions Mandatory work requirements (in order to receive welfare, you must designate father of your child and get paternity test) Marriage Promotion Promoted under George W. Bush Diverted funds to marriage promotion programs o Ex). Counseling programs that encouraged unwed parents to marry o Publicize "pro-marriage" message targeted to low income communities o Provide marriage education programs in schools with at risk youth Highly Controversial o Marriage is not an option/ideal outcome for all relationships o Marriage comes with economic and structural barriers o Not feasible policy approaches to addressing poverty Died under Obama administration Reading => Marshall and Sawhill Policy prescriptions for the future: o 1. Balance work and family After school programs Paid leave Increase/expand pre-school and quality of it Federal day care Part-time work with benefits o 2a. Early Unwed Pregnancy Abstinence and same sex programs Access to safe abortions and adoptions Access to contraception Embed messages in media o 2b. Reform Divorce Law Make no fault divorce consensual Create legal presumption of joint custody o 3. Reform tax system Address EITC phase out Address inequality in Child and Dependent Care Credit o 4. Demand Responsible Fatherhood Advocate integrating men into Welfare System Focus on prison population Create system to help fathers reduce child support arrearages o 5. Welfare Reform – Child Care Support Expectation of work o 6. Make Work Pay Increase EITC income limits Increase minimum wage Expand access to child care
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