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PSY CH. 15

by: Isabella Morles

PSY CH. 15 PSY2012

Isabella Morles

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About this Document

Psychological Disorders on the final
General Psychology
Professor Kimberly Smith
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabella Morles on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY2012 at University of Florida taught by Professor Kimberly Smith in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Florida.


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Date Created: 04/17/16
Ch. 15 Psychological Disorders Mental illness Psychopathology- mental illness  Features of psychological dysfunction in mental illness "Mental disorder" - no clear cut definition  Often seen as failure to adapt to environment  Breakdown in functioning (failure analysis approach)  Many severe types appear universal across cultures  Statistical rarity o Schizophrenia o Why we can't just use this? Not all are bad, doesn't mean they are mentally disabled  Michelangelo  Super athletes  Subjective distress o Mood disorders o Why can't we just use this? Not all bad  Bipolar mania (can be very happy at times)  Antisocial personalities (don't get stressed a lot)  Impairment o Breakdowns in functioning o Why can't we use it?  Laziness (not a mental illness)  Societal disapproval o Abnormal - defined by society o Why can't we use it?  Thomas Szasz (he says there's no such thing, it's society imposing its beliefs)  Homosexuality - used to be considered a mental illness  Biological dysfunction o Often genetic components o Schizophrenia o Bipolar disorder o Why can’t we just use this?  Phobias  Learned helplessness History Middle Ages  A demonic model o Evil spirits o Exorcisms and witch hunts Renaissance  Medical model o A physical disorder o Asylums o Treatments = bloodletting and snake pits 1800s  Moral treatment model o Dignity, respect, kindness o No effective treatments 1950s  Policy of deinstitutionalization o Medications developed o Some able to return to society o But little/no follow up o Homeless 1970-2002 • Declined population of people institutionalized, because of medications and better treatments Defining Mental Illness Today DSM-V  Diagnostic and statistical Manual of mental disorders  Groups and classifies mental disorders  18 different classes of disorders  Set of ‘decision’ rules for each condition Think organic - rule out physical causes first (like hormonal imbalances) Biopsychosocial approach - biological + psychosocial + social interactions BUT.... Categorical model: true - yes/no Comorbidity: co-occurrence of 2 or more Dimensional model: differ by degrees The Big Five Common Psychological Disorders (more common in...)  Substance abuse (male)  Anxiety (female)  Depression (female)  Antisocial personality (male)  Schizophrenia (equal) Anxiety related disorders  Most are transient (come and go)  Adaptive (Yerkes-Dodson law)  Excessive or inappropriate = maladaptive  One of the most prevalent and earliest onset of all classes of disorders Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)  About 3% of the population  1/3 develop it after major stressor or life change  Worry  Anxiety  Physical tension  Irritability Panic disorder  Panic attacks o Repeated and unexpected o Concerns about future attacks o Change personal behavior to avoid them Phobias  Intense fear of object or situation  Spiders  Agoraphobia - open spaces  Claustrophobia - small spaces  Social phobias - public speaking, etc Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)  After experience (or witness) severely stressful event  Combat situations  Usually lasts a while  Flashbacks  Recurrent dreams  Avoiding reminders of trauma  Increased physiological arousal Obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD)  Obsessions - persistent unwanted ideas, thoughts or impulses  Causes anxiety/distress - which is relieved by compulsions  Compulsions - repetitive behaviors or mental acts Somatic Symptom Disorder:  Anxieties about physical symptoms Illness Anxiety Disorder:  Preoccupation with having undiagnosed serious disease Mood disorders Most common = major depressive disorder (mdd)  Over 20% of Americans  More reveal r in females  Happens around your 30s MDD  Extreme impairment in functioning (didn't wanna get out of bed)  Gradual or sudden onset  Often recurrent  Episode 6-12 months  Most people have 5-6 episodes  Feeling sad or irritable  Sleep difficulties  Fatigue  Weight change  Suicide thoughts bipolar disorder  Both Depressive and manic episodes  Depression (like MDD)  Mania: o Elevated mood, talkative o High energy, lowered need o Inflated self esteem o Highly irresponsible behaviors Suicide  More than 30,000 people in U.S Attempt suicide each year  11th leading cause of death  Risk factors o MDD and bipolar o Previous suicide attempts o Hopelessness Suicide myths  Personality disorders  Substantial comorbidity with other disorders  Should only be diagnosed if traits first appeared by adolescence  Traits are: o Stable o Occur in a wide variety of situations o Lead to distress or impairment Borderline personality disorder (BPD)  Mainly in women  Instability in mood and impulse control  Self-district your tendencies  Overreact to stress  Lifelong difficulties regulating emotions Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD)  Mainly males  Long history of illegal behavior (frequent arrests)  Irritable, aggressive  Irresponsible, impulsive  Dishonest  Guiltless – no true remorse  Disregard for safety of self or others  Overlaps with psychopathic personality disorder Psychopathic personality disorder (not antisocial)  Previously psychopath or sociopath  Appear normal  Mainly males  Difference between antisocial - antisocial is characterized by being in trouble with the law  Guiltless – no true remorse  Disregard for safety of others  Superficial charm  Dishonesty and manipulative  Self-centered  Risk taking  Overlaps with antisocial  Deficit in fear  Perpetually under aroused  Experience "stimulus hunger" Dissociative disorders Disruptions in:  Consciousness  Memory  Identity  Perception Depersonalization/derealization disorder:  Walking around in a movie or dream  World feels unreal  Multiple episodes Dissociative amnesia  Can't remember important personal info/events  Often after a stressful event  NOT normal forgetting Type: dissociative fugue  Dissociative amnesia on steroids  Very rare  Fugue is Latin for flight  Disappear from current life  Move away  Hours - years Dissociative identity disorder (DID)  Multiple personality disorder  Presence of two or more distinct alters  Most don't show alters prior to therapy Schizophrenia  Severe disorder of thought and emotion  Genetic vulnerabilities triggered by psychosocial factors o Less than 1% of population o Loss of contact with reality o Dilutions/hallucinations o Disturbances in: thinking, emotion and language o "Positive" symptoms (psychotic)  Delusions - strong fixed beliefs with no basis in reality (someone is out to get you)  Hallucinations - sensory perceptions with no external stimuli  Disorganized speech - word salad - words that make no sense  Disorganized behavior - Catatonia o "Negative" symptoms o Reduced function o Social withdrawal o Flat affect (don't express much emotion) o Harder to get rid of Childhood Disorders Autism Spectrum Disorders Severe deficits in:  Language  Social bonding  Imagination  Often accompanied by mental retardation Spectrum includes Asperger’s Disorder  Less severe  Often normal to high intelligence Increase in prevalence since early 1990s Reflects more liberal diagnostic criteria Attention Deficit Disorders (ADD; ADHD)  Strong genetic influence  3-7% of school children  More males than females (3:1)  Inattention  Impulsivity  Hyperactivity  Numerous functional problems  Both children and adults  Successfully treated with stimulant meds  Severe symptoms sometimes confused with bipolar disorder


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