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Lecture & Textbook Notes Ch 9

by: Lorelei Wong

Lecture & Textbook Notes Ch 9 PSY 150A1

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Lorelei Wong
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Structure of Mind & Behavior
Dr. Adam Lazarewicz
Class Notes
intelligence, structure, Of, mind, &, behavior
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lorelei Wong on Sunday April 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 150A1 at University of Arizona taught by Dr. Adam Lazarewicz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Structure of Mind & Behavior in Psychlogy at University of Arizona.


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Date Created: 04/17/16
PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz Lecture Notes Chapter 9: Intelligence  Intelligence – ability to understand the world and rationally use resources to complete a task efficiently o West: academic intelligence – categories & debate rationality o East: social relationships – understand & relate to others o Social construct, a concept, not actually physical o IQ, standardized exam results, test scores, etc. = performance on intelligence test, not intelligence itself o General intelligence – underlying specific mental abilities  Overarching intelligence that contributes to lots of specific abilities  Belief that if you are good at one thing you are good at all others  Flynn effect  Fluid intelligence (G-factor) – ability to see relationships between things, abstract thinking/problem solving  Crystalized intelligence – set knowledge, cannot be interpreted  Multiple intelligences – many ways a person can be intelligent  Ex: brain damage – may retail skills in one area but not another  Ex: autistic savants – people with autism, but are extremely sufficient and advanced in a specific subject  Howard Gardner – “How smart are you” vs. “How are you smart” o 8 intelligences  1. Linguistic – word smart  Ex: TS Elliot  2. Logical-mathematical – logic smart  Ex: Albert Einstein  3. Naturalist – nature smart  Ex: Charles Darwin  4. Spatial – picture smart  Ex: Pablo Picasso  5. Bodily kinesthetic – body smart  Ex: Martha Graham  6. Musical – music smart  Ex: Mozart  7. Interpersonal – people smart  Ex: Mother Teresa  8. Intrapersonal – self smart  Ex: Gandhi  Emotional intelligence – perceiving, using, managing, and understanding emotions  High EI = higher quality relationships, better job performance  Self-awareness  Appropriate reactions to emotions  Channel emotions in direction of achieving goal PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz  Sensitive to others emotions  Managing others emotions  Creativity – ability to produce new and useful ideas outside of the ordinary  Positive correlation between IQ & creativity, but they are not the same  Ex: Simonton (2000) o Extremely creative mathematicians, architects, scientists, and engineers scored no higher on IQ than their less creative peers  Convergent thinking – only a single right answer o Ex: math & physics o Intelligence tests  Deficits: damage to left parietal lobe  Divergent thinking – many possible solutions to the same problem o Ex: brainstorming, spontaneous & free flowing o Creativity tests  Deficits: damage to frontal lobe  Measuring Intelligence o Binet-Simon test – first intelligence test (1905)  Measured mental age – chronological age typical of a given level of performance  Average 10 YO’s mental age = 10  Mental age < chronological age: difficulty with schoolwork, etc.  Intelligence quotient (IQ) – 100 * (mental age/chronological age) o Average IQ score is 100 o Ex: 8 YO performs at level of 10 YO  10/8 * 100 = 125 o Lewis Terman – at Stanford revised Binet & Simon’s test for US culture nd  Stanford-Binet test – 2 major IQ test, was the dominant test for many decades  Used test to measure innate intelligence (which was what Binet & Simon didn’t want the test to turn into—a way to label people) o The Dark Side of the IQ concept  Terman (1916) – advocate of eugenics  Believed IQ tests would o “take account of the inequalities of children in original endowment” and measure “vocational education” o Basically get rid of idiots and stop them from reproducing & have only smart people reproduce to ensure a successful future  Held extremely racist views o Modern intelligence testing  Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) – IQ tests today replaced the Stanford- Binet  Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)  They have 11 sub tests: 6 “verbal” & 5 “performance” o Reliability – consistent results PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz  Higher correlations = higher reliability  Ex: Stanford-Binet, WAIS/WISC o Very high reliability approx. +0.97 o Validity – does the test actually measure what is supposed to?  Criterion validity – does the test agree with some other measure or performance?  Ex: Higher IQ  Higher GPA in school, college (r = +0.60)  Higher prestige in work place  Higher salary  Relationship stability  Less likely to be jailed  Where does intelligence come from? o Sex differences in intelligence  Boys – high % of low and high IQ  Girls – high % of average IQ, less extremes o IQ across race  Asian > White > Hispanic > Black  High IQ > low IQ o Bias in IQ testing  Ex: stereotype threat  Stereotype – socially shared beliefs about a group & its members o Ex: Teen Talk Barbie  “Math class is tough!”  Cultural stereotypes “in the air”, may affect performance (even without interaction with bias person)  3 types of threats o 1. Stereotype awareness  self-threat o 2. Self-threat  anxiety about it confirming the stereotype o 3. Anxiety  poorer performance o Steele & Aronson (1995)  IV: black/white participants completed items from the verbal GRE  Test framed as a diagnostic/not diagnostic of innate IQ o ½ black, ½ white in each group  DV: # of items correct  Results: there is a race gap when tests set up to expect more  Diagnostic group  racial gap  Non diagnostic group  no racial gap o Spencer, Steels, & Quinn (1999)  IV: men/women take math test that provides/does not provide gender differences  Same kind of study as Steele & Aronson just with women and math  DV: math test performance PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz  Results: no gender difference when told doesn’t show gender gap, but there was a huge gender difference when told here is a gender gap o Stereotype threat  Ex: educational performances  African-American college students  Female math majors  SES and test performance  Ex: non-educational performances  Black & white athletes  Female MBA’s during negotiation  Males ability to express emotion  Women & driving PSY 150A1 With Prof. Lazarewicz Textbook Notes  G or g-factor – factor that is assumed to underlie intelligence and its early theories  Practical knowledge – knowledge related to overall life intelligence  Heritability – amount of which characteristics are related to genetically inherited features


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