GWSS 257 Week 6 Notes
GWSS 257 Week 6 Notes GWSS/PSYCH 257 Psychology of Gender
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GWSS/PSYCH 257 Psychology of Gender
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aaron Jin on Friday February 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GWSS/PSYCH 257 Psychology of Gender at University of Washington taught by Ann Voorhies in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 130 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Gender in Women and Gender studies at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 02/13/15
GWSSPSYCH 257 Psychology of Gender Topic Trangender issues 10 February 2015 Professor Notes for Reference PP 6 Sexual Development cont Garbacik Ch 8 Article quotRethinking Gender Lecture Notes and Questions Sexual Development cont Theories on Gender Development The following 3 theories assume gender comes from Oedipus complex desire for involvement with parent of other sex by assuming roles of samesex parent Psychoanalytic theory Gender identity and role develop out of early childhood conflicts and their resolution 0 Major flaw overlooks social learning and cultural influence 0 Not scientifically founded more of a philosophy Social learning Learned through observation of behaviors and their outcomes in social environment and media 0 Tend to follow those who they look towards as role models 0 Doesn t take into account gender nonconforming behavior Cognitive development theory Cognitive thinking develops along with 0 Around age 2 or 3 children already have a sense of gender identity and begin to adopt the gender roles and behaviors 0 Gender schema theory develop framework for organizing gender identities 0 Towards school age children begin to solidify the notion of gender constancy 0 Early adolescence is where people tend to believe that everyone is watching them which can be reflected in strict conformity to enacting rigid gender roles Q Bullying is a force that maintains gender segregation among children Influences on Gender Identity Biology Prenatal hormone exposure influences brain development 0 Androgen related to behaviors related to sexual reproduction I Very little research about relation between prenatal hormone exposure and gender identity but probably not definitive 0 Less clear association with gender identity those with CAH and those reassigned during infancy 0 Parental behaviors are biologically driven but gender roles socially constructed Gender identity Social Factors Teach what behaviors expected reinforce those expected and punish nonconforming behaviors All social messages impact individual s selfconcept of quotrightquot vs wrong gender o Cooties phrases boys do this girls do that binary system for sex gender orientation 0 Female children are spoken to more and males encouraged to do physical activities Assumption is that all children fit within the quotboy box or quotgirl box Q TF Children whose parents raise them without gendered expectations of behavior will grow up without the influence of gender stereotypes False because parents have assumed gender roles themselves and gender stereotypes are reinforced by social world Influences on gender identity Family First primary source of everything including gender roles attitudes and beliefs 0 Parents instill ideas through modeling behaviors different treatments of sons and daughters different opportunities encouraged and different extent of parental monitoring Siblings also influence gender roles their genders affect distribution of gender roles o Mixedgender siblings more traditional roles o Samegenderfewer siblings greater gender role flexibility unless all boys the oldest will usually be strictest with enacting male gender roles Family structure ethnicity and culture also influence gender roles o More traditional to more flexible Mexican American Asian Korean Japanese Chinese American White American African American Southeast Asian American singlemother and lesbianmother families Influences on gender identity Peers Strongly enforce gender roles bullying and exclusion as a means of social regulation 0 Formal education adult supervision and bullying contribute to gender segregation and inflexibility of gender roles during childhood and early adolescence I Boys have stricter expectations and punishments o Relaxes during late adolescence and adulthood which reflects cognitive thought rigid thought flexible thought can choose people whom you identify with and support your gender roles and leave people who do not Q Which of the following does not influence gender identity and behaviors a of siblings bparenta behavior cethnicity d birth order enone of the above Answer is E None of the above Influences on gender identity Media Conveys what is attractive and acceptable for each gender through stereotyped messages 0 Imagebased messages towards females violence and sexbased towards males 0 Cultivation theory is when person pulls ideas and thinks it is reality leads to unrealistic expectations destructive behavior and disappointment I Children have most difficulty differentiating between fantasy and reality Media has become more gendered for children and youth Gender bias found in television advertising movies and video games 0 Greater male representation and strongly stereotyped gender roles Advertising sends stronger and more vivid messages 0 Very strong stereotyping especially recently with children s advertising GWSSPSYCH 257 Psychology of Gender Topic Trangender cont 12 February 2015 Professor Notes for Reference PP 75 Transgender Identities Article quotQueer Diagnoses Parallels and Contrasts in the History of Homosexuality Gender Variance and the DSMquot Lecture Notes and Questions Transgender Identities Gender expression and gender identity in childhood 0 Most children express some gender variant behaviors but develop cisgender identity 0 Some children strongly prefer gender variant behaviors and some also identify as transgender o Risks social problems abuseat home and as a result PTSD Transgender identity during puberty 0 Prior to puberty hormone antagonists may be used to suppress pubertal development of primary and secondary sex characteristics Tackle the hypothalamus to stop the gonads from releasing sex hormones Not a permanent solution temporarily makes time for deciding about body altering hormonal treatments 0 During adolescence psychosocial experience of development crosssex hormones may be used to induce the secondary sex characteristics of gender identity Used to be belief that transsexual is medical condition and all people need surgery lf person desires to develop body in way congruent with gender this is option When altering body have to think about what characteristics want to change and how to change it Q Which researcher popularized the term quottranssexualquot Harry Benjamin Richard von KrafftEbing was one of rst people to characterize sexual behaviors and started pathologizing certain medical behaviors Did not distinguish between homosexuality and transgender Magnus Hirschfeld coined term quottransvestitequot and pathologized condition Distinguished between homosexuality and transgender Harry Benjamin coined term quottranssexualquot bettered the care and understanding of transsexuals but polarized transsexuals by making it harder to receive treatment Havelock Ellis studied homosexuality and described it scienti cally and socially Did not pathologize Christine Jorgensen was the rst to popularly go through sex reassignment surgery and receive hormone treatments Q According to quotQueer Diagnosesquot different theories have categorized homosexuality as all of the following except A pathological sexuality B Immature expression of sexuality C periodic alternative sexuality D normal variation of sexuality Answer C Sex reassignment changing one s biological sex identity 0 May involve hormone therapy alone Hormones cannot erase the puberty you39ve gone through already Need gonadal suppressing hormones while delivering other the other hormones 0 May involve hormone therapy combined with sex reassignment surgery Mastectomy or breast constructionaugmentation Oophorectomy removal of ovaries and hysterectomy removal of uterus or orchidectomy removal of orchidstestes Genital reconstruction o Depends on wish of individual some comfortable with anatomy as is other are not Don39t assume anything and don39t ask it39s not your business Social politics of sex reassignment it39s personal but often politicizedpathologized in social realm o Insistence that transgendered people conform their gender expression to match sex treated as a medical emergency that needs to be corrected 0 Encouragement of quotcorrectivequot surgery to align anatomy with gender Social preoccupation with people39s anatomy 0 Also expectations that transgendered people wish to be heterosexual o All re ects society s general discomfort with challenges to presumed heteronormative status quo gender identity transgender etc do not just t in the two boxes Socia politics of being transgender debate over whether there is right to exist as a transgendered person 0 Renee Richards transwoman quotGod didn39t put us on this earth to have gender diversity I don39t like that the kids are experimentingquot Ideal that one must t within male of female box and physically represent sex in expected anatomy o Queer theory challenged binary attitude creates space where people should exist in whatever bodies and behaviors most personally appropriate Q Social insistence that transpeople conform either their gender expression or anatomical sex re ects A personal discomfort with challenges to heteronormativity B Genuine concern for the transperson39s wellbeing C the legal punishments that may be brought against transgender expression D scienti c understanding that transgender identity is a phase that all people go through but can grow out of Answer A Q TF Most transgendered people have complete autonomy in making decisions in medical treatment Answer False Gender dysphoria and treatment a history of body regulation 0 Sex reassignment treatments typically require approval from psychotherapist 0 19605 Harry Benjamin guidelines created to ensure human treatment and wellbeing but also limited who could be candidate for sex reassignment surgery SRS 0 19802013 many providers require diagnosis of Gender Identity Disorder DSM 3 amp 4 Characterized as psychological disorder genderatypical behaviors and attitudes plus rejection of one s biological sex 1980 was the rst time homosexuality was removed from DSM 213 Gender dysphoria emotional distress over incongruence between gender and sex replaced GlD in DSM 5 Medicalization of transgender identity is gender dysphoria truly a psychological disorder 0 Disorders are deviant from social norms distressful for yourself or others and dysfunctional to person39s ability to perform all these are socially and culturally constructed Gender variant behaviors deviate from social norms Gender variance may only be distressful or dysfunctional because of response from others or others may be distressed 0 Some individuals are legitimately troubled by genderanatomy incongruence and experience dysphoria for this reason 0 Different perceptions of gender expression create different spaces for people currently experiencing gender dysphoria many people do live happily outside of binary categories
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