Biology 106 - Cousins
Biology 106 - Cousins Biology 106- Organismal Biology
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Silverman on Friday February 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 106- Organismal Biology at Washington State University taught by Dr. Cousins & Dr. Lee in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 273 views. For similar materials see Biology 106 in Biology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 02/13/15
241 5 iClicker One important difference between the anatomy of roots and the anatomy of leaves is that only leaves have phloem and only roots have xylem root cells have cell walls and leaf cells do not a waxy cuticle covers leaves but is absent from roots vascular tissue is found in roots but is absent from leaves leaves have epidermal tissue but roots do not F1909 Chapter 36 Resource Acquisition and Transport in Vascular Plants Some plants operate without a vascular system 0 Concept 361 Adaptations for acquiring resources were key steps in the evolution of vascular plants Shoot Architecture and Light Capture Root Architecture and Acquisition of Water and Minerals Water movement from root system to stems to leaves How sugars are synthesized in the leaves and transported down through the plant system Transfer solar energy convert CO2 into sugars 0 Concept 362 Different mechanisms transport substance over short or long distances 0 Occurs on three scales I Individual cells I Cell to cell I Longdistance transport Major ways of transport Diagram What a plant cell looks like Lego blocks Cell wall surrounding cell wall in the middle beige Plasma membrane inside cell wall in between cytosol and cell wall Openings allows plasmodesmata for plasma membranes to be continuous between different cell types Movement between cells Symplastic movement doesn t cross barriers but there are openings that allows for movement Apoplastic route not going across the plasma membrane Potential for movement across plasma membrane lfwe have movement that crosses the space to get into the cell it has to go through the barrier The barrier allows specific things into and out of Transport in a plant is driven by c Shortdistance transport of solutes across plasma membranes 0 Passive transport fusion high concentrationlow concentration across a barrier 0 Active transport consumption of energy 0 Shortdistance transport of water across plasma membranes high concentration inside of leaf to low concentration outside of leaf 0 Bulk flow Selective Permeability of Membranes o Selectivey transport solutes into and out of cells 0 Active and passive transport solutes into and out of cells requires energy Proton Pumps create potential energy 0 Hvdroaen ion gradient and voltage gradient membrane potential that can do work Energy of proton gradient amp membrane potential Positive will move down from positive to negative to come back to an equilibrium so there is no net charge Cotransport Can be coupled to other energy products Ex high concentration on right low on left middle will allow hydrogen ions to move only if it takes something with it The sucrose is going against what it wants but since its going with the hydrogen it is allowed to transport Diffusion of water osmosis 0 Water potential LJ combines solute potential LJS and pressure potential Lpp LIJLJSLIJP Fresh water vs salt water When you try to drink salt water it doesn t go down well Because it has solutes Low water potential in salt water Regular water has high water potential 2615 Exam on Monday All multiple choice questions example posted on Angel Chapters 262223243536 Labs 123 Transport of nutrients and water throughout the plant Base of plant root all the way up Large magnitude These plants have to move resources from the shoot system canopy all the way down through the branches trunks into the root system And vice versa Takes A LOT of energy Transport in a plant is driven by Shortdistance transport of solutes across plasma membranes Things can t usually move across but there is facilitated movement Passive transport solutes on one side of a barrier plasma membrane moving down a concentration gradient High concentration to low concentration Active transport requires energy ATP used to drive proton pumps Membrane structuresproteins moving protons across a membrane at the expense of ATP to create membrane potential energy stored across the membrane Helps solutes move across the membranes Shortdistance transport of water across plasma membranes Bulk flow Selective Permeability of Membranes Selectivey transport solutes into and out of cells defined by these protein structures that allow for either open or allow them to bind movement from one side of the cell to the other across a membrane INTO and OUT OF cells If there isn t this everything would just flow in This helps SPECIFIC solutes move into and out of Active and passive transbon transport solutes into and out of ceIIs requires energy Diffusion of water osmosis Water potential LJ combines solute potential LJS and pressure potential Lpp wwswp Important influence on plant growth aII biology systems High water availiability to low water availability Water potential driven by solute potential how many items are dissolved in the liquid More solutes lower water potential or pressure positive or negative pressure Ex Fresh water vs salt water When you try to drink salt water it doesn t go down well Because it has solutes Low water potential in salt water Regular water has high water potential Ex Someone crawling out of the ocean Individual got dehydrated because the water in his system was moving from a high water potential his body to a low water potential the ocean Difference in the solute system Pressure blowing into a straw displacing liquids Negative pressure sucking through straw creating negative pressure moving the liquid from one place to another LJ O Relatively high high compared to 1 LJ1 Relatively low if we had a system with water potential of 5 lower water potential than 1 Water would flow from 1 to 5 Until they come to equilibrium iClicker Active transport of various materials in plants at the cellular level requires all of the following except A a proton gradient B ATP C membrane potential D transport proteins involved in transporting what are providing the selective permeability allowing for selective permeability of solutes across the membrane E plasmodesmata openings between cells that allows continuity of the plasma membranes from different cells Water potential Solutes have a negative effect on LJ by binding water molecules Water Pure water at equilibrium No net flow no loss of water on one side compared to the other There is a flow of water molecules but in relatively equal amounts water potential the same everywhere Adding solutes to the right arm makes LJ lower there resulting in net movement of water to the right arm Decrease water potential Water will move from high water potential to low water potential until the water potential is equal on both sides more water will move to the solute side until it decides it s even If we create a positive pressure solutes decreasing water potential but theres positive pressure so it goes into equilibrium lfthe positive pressure and the water potential are equal it is at equilibrium If one is more than the other it will take over lfthere is negative pressure T applying negative pressure to the right arm makes LJ lower there resulting net movement of water of water to the right arm Water relations in a plant cell Picture Water s getting sucked out from high water to low water Low water potential and high water potential Because it s relative and the high water potential s on the outside it ll go in to the low water potential area Think Pair Share Think In which direction would you predict the flow of water would occur if you put an algae from a freshwater lake into the ocean Why The water potential in the ocean is lower than the water potential of the freshwater algae So the water in the freshwater algae will move out and the algae will dehydrate The cell will lose its positive pressure and shrivel up Example Plant with a lot of water vs plant with a low amount of water The plant gets water from the root system There has to be more water in the soil system than the water in the roots so that it ll move into the root system And the water potential in the roots has to be greater than the water potential in the stem and the stem has to have higher water potential than the water potential in the leaves etc Concept 363 Transportation drives the transport of water and minerals from roots to shoots via the xylem vascular system Moving water and some minerals up from the roots into the shoots Driven by transpiration movement of water from the roots through the stems up to the leaves and the evaporation of the water will pull the water from the leaves up into the atmosphere Lateral transport of minerals amp water in roots Structure that surrounds the vascular system casparian strip waxy substance Creates barrier between ground tissue and vascular system In the vascular system it s a highway In there you can go anywhere in the plant And this needs to be regulated lt blocks and regulates what goes into the vascular system Only what plants need or requires goes into the system The TranspirationCohesion Tension Mechanism Cut open leaf and look at a cross section Stemmata gatekeepers regulating gas movement What we have inside the leaf is a lot of water Leaf is 100 saturated by water Inside the leaf there are air spaces Look at evaporation Waters going through a phase transition going from a liquid phase to a vapor phase That releases energy Absorbing or releasing energy Air outside of the leaf is not 100 relative humidity lfthere s 100 inside and not 100 outside the water will move from a higher water potential leaf to a lower water potential air Some plants can absorb water from the atmosphere because there is a lot of water in the air Tree diagram Values of water potential up the tree lowest at the top thats why water gets all the way to the leaves and then evaporates out of them water s going to move from the soil into the root system into the vascular system Decreasing water potential as you go up From 3 Mpa soil to 1000 Mpa air Other features that influence the movement of water Transpiration going to xylem goes to cells goes from liquid phase to vapor phase where it diffuses into the atmosphere outside lt s pulling water up into the xylem out into the cells and out into the atmosphere If there is a pull of water into the atmosphere because of the difference of water potential it creates a string of water molecules that are getting pulled up through the xylem system Because the water cohesion makes the water stick together you have a continuous flow of water up through the system The root hairs have lower potential than the soil which creates a bulk flow of water into the roots that starts the flow of water hundreds of feet up the tree and back into the atmosphere Concept 364 The rate of transpiration is regulated by stomata About 90 of the water a plant loses escapes through stomata High surfacetovolume ratios lncrease photosynthesis but also increases water loss through stomata Stoma flanked by guard cells Guard cells controlling the opening in the stomata how much h20 and c02 goes in Changes in pressure and water potential When they re turgent lots of water in there they let water go out and c02 come in When there s dehydration shrink down and close system they don t let water out Turgor pressure opens and closes stomata Opens Closes solutes are pumped out needs ATP Concept 365 Sugars are transported form leaves and other sources to sites of use or storage Talking about movement from a source to a sink Where thers a generation and where thers a consumption Source leaves Sink anything thats not generating sugar Roots are a sink Stems are a sink Reprodcutve systems usually a sink high rates of metabolism but not generating their own sure Movement from Sugar Sources to Sugar Slnks Phloem sap Is an aqueous solution that is mostly sucrose consumed by respirtation and broken down to create ATP Cross section of leaf picture Sugar is primarily generated in the cells Concentration gradient that starts to basically load up the sievetube element Phloem loading can require active transport Proton pumping and cotransport of sucrose and H 21115 Plant Metabolim Chapter 8 amp 9 Exam 2 Phloem loading Moving of photosynthate into the vascular system phloem transport across plant system Phloem loading the increase in concentration of photosynthates that were accumulating in the phloem cells to be transported Facilitated by active co transport where energy is being released to generate a gradient energy potential of sucrose against its transportation gradient Energy of proton gradient amp membrane potential High energy on the right and low on the left Needs to move to equilibrium Facilitates the movement of sucrose From the source to the sink tissues where the sucrose is being consumed How does a cell harvest energy Where does it come from and how does it utilize the energy Chapter 8 Concept 82 The freeenergy change of a reaction tells us whether or not the reaction occurs spontaneously There are things needed for this reaction to occur Freeenergy G the portion of the system s energy that can perform work ex pumping protons moving sucrose across a membrane etc Change in FreeEnergy Can predict if a process is spontaneous energetically favorable Change in the available energy within the system Are molecules going to move across the membrane or is it going to require energy to move the molecules across the membrane Is it energy favorable for this to occur Ex Niagara Falls high free energy at the top low at the bottom The water will move from the high free energy availability to the low energy availability to create an equilibrium GAG final state G initial state Free Energy Standing on top of a diving board Gravity pulls you down More free energy at the diving board and lower beneath it Spontaneous movement down diving Very little energy to initiate the drop Biological systems Sucrose high concentration high energy gt low concentration low energy Diffusion Move towards the more stable condition Chemical reaction the process of respiration and photosynthesis Harness free energy store it and tap into it to do work To allow the cells to function Go from complex molecule high energy gt combustion or decomposition releases energy low energy Free Energy Exothermic vs Endothermic Reactions can happen in both directions Reactants have free energy stored then we see progress of reaction Start from time 0 reactants to the products We have a change in free energy Is this a favorable reaction Yes We don t lose energy it is released into the environment or into the cell s system ex respiration The above reaction is an exothermic reaction Releasing energy This is spontaneous Can also happen the other way around from low energy to high energy How does this happen Energy has to be put into the system The reactants have a low energy ex photosynthesis Taking C02 molecules and fixing them together to create a complex molecule which has high free energy It needs energy input into the system Those reactants C02 come together to make the product with a high amount of energy Plants get their energy from the sun This energy is then stored ex as sucrose which can then be consumed by individuals Endothermic energy is going INTO the reaction This is not spontaneous Free Energy Equilibrium It takes energy to pump sucrose across a membrane from low to high concentration Think of an isolated hydroelectric system Going from high free energy to low free energy after gate is removed work can be done There is a turbine in between that takes up some of the energy At some point it gets to an equilibrium then the turbine isn t doing any work Once the proton gradient is dissipated there is not more work to be done It is at equilibrium lfthere is an open hydroelectric system water flow going in one side and out the other It is at equilibrium There are small incremental changes in energy If you can harness that image c there can be productive work at each step Free Energy Free energy is a measure of a system s instability its tendency to change to a more stable state During a spontaneous change free energy decreases and the stability of a system increases Equilibrium is a state of maximum stability What has to occur for a system for it to move from equilibrium Equilibrium is the lowest energy state so there needs to be energy work to move away from this A process is spontaneous and can perform work only when it is moving toward equilibrium An exothermic reaction proceeds with a net release of free energy and is spontaneous An endothermic reaction absorbs free energy from its surroundings and is nonspontaneous Chapter 9 Concept 91 Concept 92 Concept 93 Concept 94 Energy In and Energy Out We will talk about high energy molecules in terms of respiration and how they consume them so work is being done We use ATP to describe work being done First slide There needs to be new free energy The plant harvests the solar energy to convert the energy into high energy molecules that can be consumed during respka on Respiration Although carbohydrates fats and proteins are all consumed as fuel it is helpful to trace cellular respiration with the sugar glucose C6H1206602 gt 6C026H20 iClicker The below reaction is C6H1206602 gt 6C026H20 at equilibrium gt means no energy difference false endothermic gt the arrow going the other way is endothermic Energy going into the system exothermic thermodynamically unfavorable gtthermodynamically favorable High to low energy states describes the net reaction of photosynthesis gt this would be arrow pointing the other way C6H1206602 gt 6C026H20 Energy ATPheat AG 686 kcalmol Controlled and Coupled Release of Energy Uncontrolled reaction you lighting a stick of dynamite for example Start with high energy Massive release of energy like heat or light If the system is coupled and allowed to decrease in free energy in a series of steps there is controlled release of energy for synthesis of ATP in cellular respiration Redox reaction Oxidation and Reduction During cellular respiration the fuel such as glucose is oxidized and OZ is reduced C6H1206 602 gt 6COZ 6HZO Energy Changing oxidation and reduction state Glucose is getting oxidized electrons are leaving the molecule to molecules that have low numbers of elections From glucose to C02 Oxygen is getting reduced from OZ to H20 The transfer of electrons during chemical reactions releases energy stored in organic molecules This released energy is ultimately used to synthesize ATP In oxidation a substance loses electrons or is oxidized In reduction a substance gains electrons or is reduced Cell is coupling from reduced to oxidized to harvest energy Stages of Respiration 3 steps of respiration and how the cell does it Harvesting energy from glucose has three stages Glycolysis breaks down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate Higher energy gt lower energy The citric acid cycle completes the breakdown of glucose starts where the glycolysis ends Oxidative phosphorylation accounts for most of the ATP synthesis Oxidation reduction reactions Overall diagram gt textbook in chapter 9 Glycolysis glucose to pyruvate generates ATP and high electron carriers Does this within the cytoplasm Pyruvate moves into the mitochondrion where it is converted to acetyl CoA and then to citric acid cycle where ATP is generated It also generates electron carriers that ultimately move to the membrane proteins oxidative phosphorylationeectron transport and chemiosmosis where more ATP is produced Glycolysis Glycolysis splitting of sugar breaks down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate Occurs in the cytoplasm and has two major phases Energy investment phase Energy payoff phase Glycolysis occurs whether or not OZ is present Oxygen independent Energy Investment Phase Energy input step Requires ATP Expected to know there is an energy input step in glycolysis Going from a relatively low energy state to a high one Energy payoff phase gt coupled to ATP and molecule NADH high electron energy carrier Low energy state to high energy state NAD is reduced to NADH Release of ATP used to drive electron transport Net gt glucose is getting consumed or split to pyruvate and also generating high energy electron carriers Generating ATP TCA Cycle AKA the Krebs Cycle The citric acid cycle also called the Krebs cycle completes the breakdown of pyruvate to C02 The citric acid cycle has eight steps each catalyzed by a specific enzyme The cycle oxidized organic fuel derived from 21315 Plant Metabolism amp Nutrition iClicker Which below best describes the order of the three stages of respiration W909 Citric acid cycle gt Glycolysis gt Oxidative phosphorylation Oxidative phosphorylation gt Glycolysis gt Citric acid cycle Glycolysis gt Oxidative phosphorylation gt Citric acid cycle Glycolysis gt Citric acid cycle gt Oxidative phosphorylation Citric acid cycle gt Oxidative phosphorylation gt Glycolysis Stages of Respiration 3 steps of respiration and how the cell does it Harvesting energy from glucose has three stages Glycolysis breaks down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate Higher energy gt lower energy The citric acid cycle completes the breakdown of glucose starts where the glycolysis ends Oxidative phosphorylation accounts for most of the ATP synthesis Oxidation reduction reactions Overall diagram gt textbook in chapter 9 Glycolysis glucose to pyruvate generates ATP and high electron carriers Does this within the cytoplasm Pyruvate moves into the mitochondrion where it is converted to acetyl CoA and then to citric acid cycle where ATP is generated It also generates electron carriers that ultimately move to the membrane proteins oxidative phosphorylationelectron transport and chemiosmosis where more ATP is produced Mitochondrial electron transport The electron transport chain is in the inner membrane cristae of the mitochondrion Most of the chain s components are proteins which exist in multiprotein complexes The carriers alternate reduced and oxidized states s they accept and donate electrons Electrons drop in free energy as they go down the chain and are finally passes to 02 forming H20 Diagram y axis is free energy relative to oxygen x axis oxygen electron carriers NADH and FADHZ carriers can donate electrons to the chain Electrons are initially given to a high energy state and as they go down the chain the energy state lowers Cartoon we have the inner membrane structure of the mitochondria complexes I II III IV in I the electrons are moving into the system going from high energy to lower energy lts being coupled to the pumping of protons As they move to the lower energy levels they release energy and are coupled to the coupled to the pumping of protons 1 Electron transport chain 2 Chemiosmosis Now we have a lot of free energy stored in the mitochondria so work can be done They generate ATP There is a facilitated diffusion which means the electrons can move back and forth across the membrane This generates ATP The three phosphates from the two phosphate system ATP Synthase Membrane with the high concentration on one side and low on the other Allows protons to bind and move and causes the whole structure to rotate As it ratchets it binds the ADP with two phosphates and a free phosphate and then it binds and creates ATP This makes it go back to equilibrium If the ATP Synthase consumes all of the electrons and gets to equilibrium the ATP synthase will stop Have we seen this structure before We ve talked about the active cotransport of sucrose across the plasma membrane But this is in the opposite direction When we saw it the proton pump was consuming ATP and the reaction was going in the opposite direction generating ADP Mitochondrial electron transport The energy stored in a H gradient across a membrane couples the redox reactions of the electron transport chain to ATP synthesis The H gradient is referred to as a protonmotive force emphasizing its capacity to do work Respiration During cellular respiration most energy flows in this sequence glucose gt NFADH gt electron transport chain gt protonmotive force gt ATP About 34 of the energy in a glucose molecule is transferred to ATP during cellular respiration making about 32 ATP There are several reasons why the number of ATP is not known exactly some energy is used for other processes some is released as heat Chapter 10 Concept 101 Concept 102 Concept 103 Concept 104 Energy movement through biology system Autotrophs sustain themselves without eating anything derived from other organisms Heterotrophs obtain their organic material from other organisms Mixotrophs are both Autotrophs and Heterotrophs Resbiration verw Photosynthesis C6H1ZO6 602 gt 6C02 6HZO Energy ATPheat 6C02 6HZO Light energy gt C6H1206 602 C02 becomes reduced H20 becomes oxidized iClicker Which of the following best describes the below reaction 6C02 12HZO Light energy gt C6H1206 602 6HZO Glycolysis Exothermic The Citric Acid Cycle Endothermic Oxidative Phosphorylation W909 Details of photosynthesis In the leaf dermal layer stomata gases into and out of leaf look into cells There are organelles chloroplast structures lfwe look into the chloroplast you can see that they have a number of different membrane structures lnner outer and thylakoid membrane structures In the synthesis part of photosynthesis it is occurring in the aqueous stage in the stoma Two stages of photo amp synthesis Photosynthesis consists of the light reactions the photo part and CalvinBenson cycle the synthesis part The light reactions in the thylakoids Split H20 Release 02 Reduce NADP to NADPH Generate ATP from ADP by photophosphorylation light energy photons solar energy facilitating this production The CalvinBenson cycle in the stroma forms sugar from C02 using ATP and NADPH The CalvinBenson cycle begins with carbon fixation incorporating CO2 into organic molecules Cartoon Light reactions using solar energy to remove electrons Generate molecules which are consumed by the CalvinBenson cycle Where CO2 is taken up This can be consumed and regenerated to the high energy Concept 102 The light reactions convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH Chloroplasts are solarpowered chemical factories Thylakoids membranes transform light energy into the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH Light Harvesting Diagram of light capture Some light is intercepted by the membranes Not all light is captured some goes right through the leaf and some is reflected We re interest in the light being absorbed by the cylaploid membrane Goes from low free energy to high free energy A couple of things can happen to the electrons that get energy dissipated as heat or released as photons fluorescents or coupled to work Thinkpairshare Think 1minute Why do leaves typically look green How might this relate to the color of light plants use for photosynthesis Leaves appear to be green because leaves are reflecting the green light Green light is not driving photosynthesis It s being reflected off of the leaf that s why we see it Electron and energy transfertransport Two photosystems l and II A photon that can do work Absorbed by chlorophyll and the electron goes up in energy The energy can be dissipated and it is coupled to do work ATP is synthesized The second photon is absorbed High energy state of electron Generates NADPH iClicker The term free energy is best defined by which of the following W999 Describes a system at equilibrium Describes an endothermic reaction Describes the portion of a systems energy that can perform work Higher free energy is a more stable system Lower free energy is a more stable system
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