European Civ Class Notes, #5
European Civ Class Notes, #5 HIST 1120 - European Civ in World Context
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meghan Xanthos on Saturday February 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1120 - European Civ in World Context at George Washington University taught by Burns in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 84 views. For similar materials see European Civ in World Context in History at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/14/15
19th century ideologies throne and altar monarchical christian emerges after congress of Vienna body that was going to decide how Europe would be run differences between Christians aren t important anymore known as the holy alliance Britain there is the idea that the most conservative book in the world is the bible conservative politics is aristocratic politics economic conservatism exult the traditional sectors of the economy speci cally agriculture the aristocracy rises in power thanks to agricultural land conservatism stands for a strong agricultural sector protect agricultural sector by taxing incoming good agricultural protectionism establish tariffs for imported goods corn laws corn in Europe means wheat laws to protect english wheat production form cheaper imports elsewhere liberals oppose strongly want cheap food opposed to free trade agriculture facing competition from cheaper elsewhere outside Europe o liberalism general future orientation liberals believe that problems exist not because change happens too rapidly liberals believe in progress and that the main set of problems we face are caused by the persistence of things from the past economic liberalism built on the idea of free trade liberals go to war as party of free trade economic freedom led to greater wealth ideology of selfmade man and people working for selfmade man socialism is opposed to liberalism liberalism is caught between a conservative established order and the insurgent lower class who want to change everything too rapidly lower classes scarier now than in the 17905 liberals assume lower classes lazy pass law for workhouses liberalism is not democratic voting for liberals liberalism tends to view voting as restricted on gender and wealth only those who make a certain amount of money can be trusted to be responsible with the vote danger of poor voters liberals believe in distinct gender roles think women are too religious few liberals support suffrage because of the rights of man context of imperialism limited europeans are civilized therefore should be trusted to govern colonies full liberal rights are for only certain kinds of civilization liberals are strongly anticlerical believed the church has too much power strongly oppose religious intolerance go beyond toleration in favor of religious equality troubled by power of churches are for civil marriage some aristocrats are liberal especially the Whig aristocracy nationalism what is a nation for America american nation de ned as a body of people who are american citizens de nition also holds true in parts of Europe France de nes itself in terms of citizenship Ireland vast majority catholic and excluded from political power until they form catholic league to lobby Ireland thought they received a raw deal from UK expressed in Irish nationalist movements nationalism can express itself for the liberation of the nation from another nation which is pressing it 0 Italy radically anticlerical nationalism in Italy because the church is strong no continuous territory with papal states eventually when Italy takes over territory the pope doesn t leave vatican and won t step on soil that is part of Italy Germany nationalism arrises because of napoleon occupation Science and Secularism church and state church loses control over marriage civil marriage legalized ease of divorce is increased if the state is going to boss church around church realizes it could bene t from separation to this day the government retains ultimate control over the church of England church and urbanization less of agricultural workforce railroad lead development of large cities cities growing rapidly example paris population of paris doubles between 1961 1965 number of parishes goes up 33 percent number of catholic priests go up 30 percent churches aren t big enough to cater to the entire population of paris people are uprooted from rural areas and don t know where church is idea forms that if your neighbors don t go to church why would you clergy is not an attractive career anymore pay low people more interested in science and medicine secularization more rapid among men than women Mediterranean religious pattern in the village everyone goes to the church the women and children go inside the men stay outside because it is not manly to go inside geology huge deal in 19th century popular culture surrounded geology that there isn t now museums for rocks sprouted up lectures in geology books in geology grew increasingly popular rst half of the 19th century geology was the science which had the biggest public interest geologists are thinking about what rocks and stones tell us about the history of the earth fossils understood nally not jokes by nature as thought before people were saying extinction is impossible late 18th century idea of extinction was accepted earth was not six thousand years old as it was thought did not match geological record dinosaurs gured out not elephant or giant as previously hypothesized darwinian evolution religious people willing to concede evolution in general main problem with evolution was that christianity like all religions based on the idea that human beings are different christianity de ned key difference between humans and animals that humans have souls common ancestor between humans and apes was found and that ancestor was pretty much an ape the soul never came in with the theory of evolution church decided that humans evolved and god stuck soul in humans at some point Huxley militant agnostic