Chapter 6: Enzymes, Energy, and Metabolism
Chapter 6: Enzymes, Energy, and Metabolism BSC-1010C
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandria Benavides on Saturday February 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC-1010C at a university taught by Dr. Mason in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 188 views.
Reviews for Chapter 6: Enzymes, Energy, and Metabolism
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Date Created: 02/14/15
Chapter 6 Enzymes Kinetic Vs Potential energy 1st amp 2nd laws of thermodynamics entropy Exergonic Vs endergonic runs G lt O G gt O Smaller gt larger endergonic energy is required Larger smaller Exergonic energy is released Activation of energy are the initial input of energy to start a chemical reaction and enzymes lower this energy 3 wavs Enzvmes lower activation enerqv bv Q Straining the chemical bonds in reactants 0 Hold the chemical bonds together 0 Chaining local environment Substrates reactants molecules that are gonna change Enzyme is unchanged used over amp over KEY TERMS GENERAL 0 chemical reaction A process in which one or more substances are changed into other substances 0 metabolism the sum total of all chemical reactions that occur within an organism 61 ENERGY AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS energy ability to promote change or do work potential energy the energy that a substance or object possesses due to its structure or loca on kinetic energy energy associated with movement Chemical Energy the energy contained within covalent bonds in molecules thermodynamics the study of energy interconversions 1st and 2nd laws of thermodynamics 1st energy cannot be created or destroyed however it can be transferred from one place to another 2nd any energy transfer or transformation from one form to another increases the degree of disorder of a system called entropy entropy S a measure of the randomness of molecules in a system enthalpy total energy H AG AH TAS formula to evaluate if a chemical reaction is spontaneous exergonic AG spontaneous and free energy is released during product formatiom endergonic AG it39s not spontaneous ATP ADP Pi sources of energy to drive a chemical reaction or cellular process chemical equilibrium rate of formation of products equals the rate of formation of reactants phosphorylation phosphate is directly transferred from ATP to glucose 62 ENZYMES AND RIBOZYMES catalyst speeds up the rate of a vhemical reaction without being permanently changed or consumed by it Enzymes enzymes that are proteins activation energy inital input of energy allows the molecules to get close enough to cause a rearrangement of bonds transition state original bonds have stretched to their limit 3 ways enzymes lower activation energy 1 Bound to an enzyme where reactants can be strained 2 Chemical reaction involves two or more reactants 3 Changing their local environment of their reactants active site location in an enzyme where the chemical reaction takes place substrates Reactamt molecules that bind to am enzyme at the active site and participate in the chemical reaction enzymesubstrate complex product Binding between an enzyme and substrate lock and key metaphor andor induced fit conformational changes cause the substrates to bind more tightly to the enzyme reversible inhibitors competitive molecules that bind noncovalently to the active site of and in hit the ability of the substrates to bind and noncompetitive inhibitors binds noncovalently to an enzyme at a location outside the active site called an allosteric site allosteric site Inhibits the enzymes function irreversible inhibitors binds covalently to an enzyme to inhibit it39s function prosthetic groups small molecules that are permanently attatched to the surface of am enzyme and aid in emzye function Cofactors Inorganic ions that temporarily bind to the surface of am enzyme and promote a chemical reaction coenzymes Organic molecules that temporarily bind to an enzyme and participate in the chemical reaction but are left unchanged after the reaction is completed temperature pH affect and play a proper role of the function of emzymes ribozyme describes an RNA molecule that catalyzes a chemical reaction 63 OVERVIEW OF METABOLISM metabolic pathways where chemical reactions are often coordinated with each other and occur in sequences catabolic reactions breakdown of larger molecules into smaller ones anabolic reactions The synthesis of larger molecules from smaller precursor molecules biosynthetic reactions also known as anabolic reactions they are necessary to make larger molecules and macromolecules energy intermediates molecules such as ATP which are directly used to drive endergonic reactions in cells substratelevel phosphorylation a way of synthesizing ATP when an enzyme directly transfers a phosphate from an organic molecule to ADP thereby making ATP where the enzyme pyruvate kinase transfers a phosphate from phosphoenolpyruvate to ADP chemiosmosis a way to make ATP by storing energy in an ion electrochemical gradient reduction the addiction of electrons to an atom or molecule Oxidation the removal of one or more electrons from an atom or molecule redox reactions When an atom or molecule is oxidized the electron that is removed must be transferred to another atom or molecule NAD nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is reduced to NADH which are highly exergonic reaction reaction to make ATP and can donate electrons to other organic molecules for energy regulation of metabolic pathways 1 gene regulation 2 cellular regulation 3 biochemical regulation feedback inhibition the final product of a metabolic pathway inhibits an enzyme that functions in the pathway thereby preventing the overaccumulation of the product 64 RECYCLING OF ORGANIC MOLECULES skip most of this section lysosomes dijestive enzymes to break down complex material that take up from outside the cell autophagy cellular material such as worn out organelle becomes enclosed in a double membrane
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