Welcome to Human Biology
Welcome to Human Biology 63956
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Herscher on Saturday February 14, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 63956 at San Francisco State University taught by Holly Harris in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see BIOL 100 in Biology at San Francisco State University.
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Date Created: 02/14/15
Welcome To Human Biology Week One Human Biology focuses on the physiological processes in humans Traits of Living Things 1 Are made up of cells 2 Respond to Stimuli 3 Grow and Develop 4 Reproduce 5 Utilize an Energy Source 6 Maintain Homeostasis Normal Functioning 7 Adapt to Environmental Changes Life on Earth 0 Earth was formed 46 billion years ago 0 Life began 38 billion years ago with simple bacteria 0 Bacteria were the rst organisms to undergo photosynthesis 3 billion years ago Produced Oxygen OZ 0 Eukaryotes evolved 2 billion years ago 0 Multicellular life arrived 1 billion years ago 0 Sea creatures showed up 600 million years ago 0 Plants found themselves on land 475 million years ago 0 Dinosaurs walked the Earth 300 million years ago 0 Mammals appeared 200 million years ago 0 The rst owers bloomed 130 million years ago 0 Primates evolved only 65 million years ago 0 And nally humans came into existence 200000 years ago Steps of the Scienti c Method 0 Observation 0 Hypothesis 0 Experiment Analyze results 0 Qonclusion 0 Beer Review Basic Chemistry and Organic Molecules Hierarchical Order of Matter and Life 0 Matter Quark Subatomic Particles Atoms Elements and Molecules 0 Life Organelle Cell Tissue Organ Organ System Multicellular Organism Species Population Community Ecosystem Biosphere Basic Chemistry Units of Matter atoms Element consists of one type of atom Atomic Number number of protons in one atom of an element Atomic Mass sum of protons and neutrons Q MOVMQ Nvu sik n0mba of ekcrmns nam0u OL Prohwb e S lmBOL INAME Anmm Mix6 400 M0 manic Mai U 5gt Atomic Structure 0 Nucleus protons positively charged and neutrons neutral 0 Isotope a Example Carbonl4 6 protons and 8 neutrons Electrons negatively charged circle the neutrons and protons Composition of LiVing Matter 0 Carbon C Oxygen O Hydrogen H and Nitrogen N make up 96 of all liVing matter CHON Sulfur and Phosphorous are often present too CHONPS 0 There are also trace elements of iron iodine and selenium Molecules and Compounds 0 Molecules can have the same or different atoms 0 Compounds substances consisting of two or more different elements Covalent Bonds 0 When atoms share at least one pair of electrons Are usually liquids or gases at room temperature 0 Example Covalent bond of Oxygen OZ Ionic Bonds 0 Transfer electrons from one element to another 0 The elements become ions or charged atoms 0 Opposite ions attract to form ionic bonds between the atoms Hydrogen Bonds 0 Weak bonds of Hydrogen that are attracted to negative atoms 0 Example Hydrogen bonds that help join the two stands of DNA molecules Function of Bonds 0 Store energy endothermic reaction 0 Example the making of sugar 0 Release energy when broken exothermic reaction 0 Example sugar broken down yields chemical energy in the form of ATP and heat is released Chemical Reactions 0 The making or breaking of chemical bonds and thus changing the composition of matter 0 Example hydrogen peroxide water oxygen enzyme 0 Enzymes help reactions to run A substrate interacts with the enzyme at the active site causing the bonds in the substrate to weaken which then creates two new products 0 Example catalase helps break down hydrogen peroxide Water 0 Otherwise known as the molecule of life 0 Its a universal solvent dissolves solutes usually a liquid 0 Our body weight comes mostly from water 0 Not having enough water in our bodies can be a problem Not enough water Dehydration Too much water Hyponatremia Four Main Organic Macromolecules Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids and Nucleic Acids These chains of hydrocarbons are made of monomers which group together to form polymers Dehydration Synthesis 0 When enzymes remove one molecule of water condensation reaction Example amino acids Hydrolysis The splitting of a polymer by adding water to a covalent bond two atoms that share at least one pair of electrons W 0 Which is then catalyzed by a hydrolyase enzyme Fun Fact Carbohydrates are the best source of energy for your body Nutrition Metabolism the breaking down of nutrients the processes of energy generation and use Nutrients need to be ingested because we can t make them ourselves Macronutrients Carbohydrates Protein Fat and Water we need the most of these things Micronutrients Vitamins and Minerals we only need a very small amount of these things 0 Critical for body processes Suggested Diet 0 Tons of vegetables 0 Plenty of fruit of all colors 0 Whole grains limit re ned grains Good wholewheat bread whole grain pasta and brown rice Bad white rice and white bread 0 Healthy oils but avoid fat Good olive and canola oil Bad butter and trans fats 0 Drink lots of water be careful not to drink too much dairy or juice and try to steer clear of sugary drinks altogether Fun Fact The nutrients that are the most important for building and repairing cells in the body are fats
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