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Physical Geography Week 10 Notes

by: Julia Parenti

Physical Geography Week 10 Notes GEOG 101 001

Marketplace > Towson University > Geography > GEOG 101 001 > Physical Geography Week 10 Notes
Julia Parenti
GPA 3.75

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About this Document

These notes discuss the following topics: -earthquakes -volcanoes -tsunamis -rocks, weathering and erosion
Physical Geography
Dr. Ken Barnes
Class Notes
Physical, geography
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Parenti on Monday April 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 101 001 at Towson University taught by Dr. Ken Barnes in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Physical Geography in Geography at Towson University.


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Date Created: 04/18/16
Physical Geography Earthquake Hazards  Geologic evidence demonstrates that major earthquakes have occurred throughout  geologic history ­so do recent current events  Normal processes  Most earth movements are minor and can only  be detected with the use of sensitive  seismometers ­it is estimated that globally 1 million tremors occur each year, however, only 10 percent  are felt by people  The big ones can be catastrophic, with staggering losses of lives ­Shensi province earthquake in sixteenth century China led to more than 800,000 dead ­the Lisbon Portugal earthquake of 1755 killed nearly 60,000 ­Tangshan earthquake of 1976 over 300,000 deaths ­the casualties such as these and massive destruction of property make the study  of earthquakes and their prediction a high priority Earthquake Zones  Pacific Rim ­Accounts for 70% of world’s earthquakes ­Also known for its concentrations of volcanoes  Mid Ocean Ridge ­Mid­Atlantic Ridge  Mediterranean Basin  Indian Ocean  East African Rift Zone  Intra­plate earthquakes occur but are less common Causes of Tsunamis  Earthquakes (main cause)  Sudden crustal subsidence beneath the ocean  Massive slope failures of large volcanic islands (super slides)  Massive marine sediment slides  Submarine volcanic eruptions  Large rockfalls into confined bays Volcanism  Fluid state movement of the Earth’s crust ­produces intrusive and extrusive features  Volcano: vent by which gases, liquids, solids from the interior are ejected or extruded  onto the surface  Extrusive Landforms and features ­pyroclastic materials: solid materials ejected from vents ­Lava plains and plateaus: produced by fissure eruptions ­Volcanic cones ­shield: large broad cone with shallow slopes (lava) ­composite (strato­volcano) steep layered cones (ash and lava) ­cinder: small, steep sided, wide crater (pyroclastic materials) ­Geothermal features ­geyser: fountain of superheated water that spray periodically  ­hot spring: water heated by contact with hot rocks ­mudspot: gaseous mud and water ­fumerole: steam vent Geographical Distribution of Volcanoes  There are about 500 active volcanoes globally ­many more are extinct or dormant ­we do not know precisely how many volcanoes are on Earth, but it is in the tens of  thousands ­there are at leasy 10,000 in the pacific ­approximately half of the world’s total Are Volcanoes Major Killers?  Yes and No  Estimated that over the past 500 years volcanoes have caused only 200,000 fatalities  Average 400 victims per year  100 people per day die on highways  Volcanic eruptions do cause extensive property damage and destruction over wide areas  but human casualties are usually low ­why? ­lots of advanced warning of eruptions Volcanic Hazards  Lava flows  Lahars: volcanic mudflows Lecture 18 Rocks, Weathering and Erosion Rocks and Minerals  Rocks: Naturally formed aggregates or masses of mineral matter. Minerals retain their  individual identity within rock masses ­bedrock: solid rock layer ­regolith: weathered rock material above bedrock ­outcrop: exposed bedrock  Minerals: Naturally occurring inorganic crystalline compounds with well­defined  combinations of atomic elements and unique chemical formulas ­stuff that rocks are made from Rock Types  Igneous: Formed by the solidification of hot mile materials ­80% of the earth’s crust is igneous rock, but do not comprise the greatest proportion on  the surface ­Intrusive: (ex: granite) and Extrusive (ex: basalt) Forms  Sedimentary: hardening of layered accumulations (strata) of mineral materials or  chemical precipitates derived from previously existing rock or from organic matter ­examples: sandstone, limestone, bituminous coal ­most common rock on the surface*** ­bedding planes: indicated changes in the environmental conditions under which the  sediments were deposited ­deep to shallow water marine ­shallow marine to land­stream deposition ­stream to wind deposition, etc.  Metamorphic: Igneous or sedimentary rocks that have been changed physically or  chemically through heat or pressure or both ­examples: anthracite coal (hard coal), slate, marble, schists, gneiss and quartzite Weathering: Physical and chemical breakdown of rock material  Rates of weathering are temperature and water dependent  Weathering is important for many reasons ­soil formation via the creation of regolith ­biogeochemical cycles via the release of soluble nutrients from the soil and parent  materials ­creation of new compounds ­accumulation of certain metallic ores such as bauxite and iron ores Types of Weathering  Physical  Chemical Types of Physical Weathering  Joint and Fracture Formation: producted by earthquakes or related activites or by  unloading  Frost Wedging: Water freezes and expants in cracks ­splinters rock ­important in the middle and high latitudes and in high mountains ­produces talus  Salt Crystal Growth: crystals wedge rocks apart  Thermal expansion and contraction: associated with the heat from wildfires  Hydration: temporary adhesion of water molecules to rock minerals ­causes minerals to shrink and swell  Biological Action: tree roots, animals borrowing, etc. Chemical Weathering Processes  Hydrolysis: permanent chemical combination of water molecules with minerals. Weakens minerals  Oxidation: chemical combination of minerals with oxygen  Carbonation: chemical reactions of rock materials with carbonic acid ­converts oxides to more soluble forms  Solution: dissolving of rock materials in water Weathering and Climate  Different types of climates have different types and rates of weathering  Physical and chemical weathering processes occur simultaneously; however, their rates  vary by climate ­in cold climates and dry climates physical weathering dominates ­in hot, wet climates, chemical weathering dominates Differential Weathering and Landscapes  Differential weathering of rock can produce some pronounced and oftern dramatic  landscape contrasts.  ­in dry areas, limestone is a ridge former ­in humid areas, limestone is a valley former Sequence of Gradation  Weathering  Erosion  Transportation  Deposition 


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