Class notes about porn in the media
Class notes about porn in the media CDAE 127
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This 27 page Class Notes was uploaded by kaswimmer on Monday April 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDAE 127 at University of Vermont taught by Sun Tao in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Consumer Policy in Business at University of Vermont.
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Date Created: 04/18/16
iClicker Exercise Based on the reading, which of the following statements tends to be true: a. Evidence for a causal relationship between exposure to pornography and sexual aggression is slim. b. Evidence for a causal relationship between exposure to pornography and sexual aggression is strong. Definition of Pornography We don’t have a strict law against it, because we don’t define it too specifically Definition of Pornography I know it when I see it -- US Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart (1964). We don’t really have a way to define it Miller Test (Miller vs. California, 1973) 1. whether the average person, applying contemporary community standards (even this is subjective)(not national standards, as some prior tests required), would find that the work, taken as a whole, appeals to the prurient interest; 2. whether the work depicts or describes, in a patently offensive way (again, hard to define), sexual conduct or excretory functions specifically defined by applicable state law; and 3. whether the work, taken as a whole, lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific values. (LAPS) 3 step test to see if something is porn based on previous cases KNOW FOR TEST! 14-4 Opposing Arguments •Those calling for censorship believe that pornography is associated with increases in violence against women, increases in sexual assault, and increases in risky sexual behaviors. •Those opposed to censorship call for greater First Amendment protections for media in general and pornographic media specifically. Opposing Arguments •Some argue that exposure to pornography desensitizes viewers, thereby increasing the risk of committing sexual assault or rape. •Others believe pornography may be something of a catharsis for those with pent up sexual aggression and that viewing pornography may actually reduce the desire to engage in sex crimes such as rape. •No social science to support this argument. Though this doesn’t mean it isn’t right Social Learning Theory Social learning theory contends that human behaviors, including aggressive and violent ones, are imitations (Bandura, 1977). We learn based on what we see and what we observe. Soon, abstract comparisons and connections will be made and more can be learned (hammer and nails example). Imitation through copy cat behavior Stanley vs. Georgia (1969) Private possession of obscene materials is not illegal. This made porn legal, though things such as child pornography still is illegal. FBI would monitor these activities. Freedom of speech doesn’t super apply because of how young kids are and they aren’t developmentally capable of making these decisions. President’s Commissions The 1970 Commission on Obscenity and Pornography concluded that there were no anti-social or adverse effects from exposure to sexually explicit material. Two commissions had opposing results President’s Commissions •Then in the mid-1980s, President Ronald Reagan commissioned another government inquiry into the effects of pornography. •Attorney General Edwin Meese headed the commission. The Meese Commission •The Meese Commission concluded that there was a causal link between viewing pornography and sexual violence toward women (Attorney General's Commission on Pornography, 1986). •According to the report, viewing pornography changes perceptions of “typical” sexual behavior, trivializes rape, promotes rape myths and directly leads to male aggression toward women. •Though the Meese Commission acknowledged that these effects were particularly prevalent for violent porn, these conclusions were generalized to include all pornographic material. 14-11 President’s Commissions The results of this scholarly research and the findings of the two national commissions have reached mixed conclusions regarding the relationship between exposure to pornography and sexual attitudes and behavior. Pornography and Sexual Violence •Linz, Donnerstein, and Penrod (1987) questioned the causal link between pornography and male sexual violence proposed by the Meese Commission. •Regarding male sexual violence, Linz et al. noted that research suggests that violent pornography, as well as “slasher” films, promote rape trivialization and rape myths, but non-violent pornography has not demonstrated increases in male sexual aggression. Aggressive porn does/ can result in sexual aggression Non aggressive porn doesn’t result in sexual aggression 14-13 Content of Pornography Although some pornography is assaultive in nature and some has even depicted rape and homicide, this type comprises a miniscule proportion of pornography in general and is not mainstream, or popularly consumed. Typical pornography represents adults engaged in mutually consenting sexual activity (Palys, 1986). Most porn is fine and doesn’t show people getting assaulted Government Regulations •In 1996, US Congress passed the Communications DecencyAct, which criminalized making pornography available to minors. •In 1997, however, in Reno vAmerican Civil Liberties Union, the act was rendered unconstitutional by the Supreme Court. Their ruling stated that the law was vague, and too restrictive. •By making it illegal to minors, you are creating a situation where it is illegal to adults and harder to get. •Cant be too restrictive or two vague. 14-15 Government Regulation The Child On-Line ProtectionAct of 1998, which required commercial distributors of harmful material to restrict access to minors, followed and was also struck down as unconstitutional by the Supreme Court. CIPA Finally, in 2000 Congress enacted a watered down version of the Child Online ProtectionAct, re-titled the Child Internet Protection Act (CIPA) which mandated that schools and libraries install software to block the viewing of pornographic internet sites. CIPA had no requirements for home computers and did allow libraries to turn the blocking software off if an adult patron so requested. THIS became law; the blocking of porn in public places and schools unless an adult asks for you to unblock it. NEED TO GIVE ADULTS ACCESS TO MATERIAL 14-17 Experimental Research •Results of these experimental research studies reveal that effects appear negligible, temporary and difficult to generalize to the real world. •Studies such as these are also fraught with many limitations, some of which include validity issues with “aggression” measures, brief exposure times, complexities of correlating attitudes with behavior, and difficulties in generalizing results from college students to actual sexual offenders and rapists (Mould, 1988). 14-18 Pornography and Sexual Aggression Evidence for a causal relationship between exposure to pornography and sexual aggression is slim and may, at certain times, have been exaggerated by politicians, pressure groups and some social scientists. Pornography and Rape Victimization rates for rape in the United States demonstrate an inverse relationship between pornography consumption and rape rates. Pornography and Rape Most industrial nations are currently experiencing a significant decline in rape and sexual assault rates despite the increasing availability of pornography. Denmark For instance, decriminalization and subsequent increased consumption of pornography in Denmark in the 1960s correlated with decreases in sexual assaults (Ben-Veniste, 1971; Kutchinsky, 1973). Will be on exam! Correlation is not causation. Japan •Other studies cite statistics from countries, such as Japan, where rape rates are much lower than in the United States despite the much greater availability of sexually deviant and violent material (Abramson & Hayashi, 1984). •Empirical analyses in Japan also find that increasing availability of pornography is associated with declining rates of rape and other sex crimes (Diamond & Uchiyama, 1999). •Evidence against porn being correlated to rape Conclusions from the Article •Considered together, the available data about pornography consumption and rape rates in the United States seem to rule out a causal relationship, at least with respect to pornography availability causing an increase in the incidence of rape. •One could even argue that the available research and self-reported and official statistics might provide evidence for the reverse effect; the increasing availability of pornography appears to be associated with a decline in rape. 14-24 Date Rape What about the relationship between pornography and date rape? Date Rape The difference between actual incidents and self- or officially-reported incidents is not known. Under reporting may be prevalent where the rape victim knows or is related to their attacker. Media may affect this behavior. Interactions from the media and how its portrayed it’s the more relevant affect. TEST QUESTION Media and date rape? Exposure to sexual media Third Person Effect •A person exposed to a persuasive communication in the mass media (particularly negative messages) tends to believe that it will have a greater effect on others than on himself or herself (Davison, 1983). •Explains why people support governemtn inteventions
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