History 251 Week 12 Notes
History 251 Week 12 Notes HIS 251
Popular in Global History 1500s to the Present
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kiara Lynch on Monday April 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 251 at La Salle University taught by Prof. Kamper in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Global History 1500s to the Present in History at La Salle University.
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Date Created: 04/18/16
History Week 12 Notes CHAPTER 40 Quiz- compare Hitler and Stalin Test- possible essays What is the chronology of the beginning of WWI and who do you place the blame on? Serbia- assassination, aggressiveness German militarism – war to increase power Austria- determination to crush Serbia Russia- mobilization France- encouraging Britain- failing to make clear they would support their allies Chronology of the Great War June 28, 1914- assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand July 28, 1914- Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia August 1914 o Germany declares war on Russia (Aug 1) and France (Aug 3) o Germany invades Belgium, followed immediately by Britain’s declaration of war on Germany (Aug 4) September 5-9, 1914 o Battle of the Maine- France and British are able to stop the German advance in the West o Nature of war changed and became one of position instead of movement Causes of the War Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand Nationalism, International imperialism, weariness of peace Austrians presented Serbs with an ultimatum but that would mean loss of independence so Serbians chose to go to war Russia was an ally of Serbia so they got involved o Full mobilization- sign of war against the Germans and Austrians Germans warned Russia to stop mobilizing against them o Russia does not stop Germans declare war on Russia German attack against France b/c France is allies with Russia Germany invades Belgium which brings Britain into the war War as Celebration Shows power of nationalism Acting as if a great adventure was about to begin; believed war would be only a few months Glory, duty, honor Belief that the first people to strike had an advantage New weapons- machine gun, mustard gas caused more death War of Position instead of Movement Trench warfare develops Military Action All members but Italy at war within a week Italy bargained with both sides for months Austria-Hungary, Germany, Turky, Bulgaria 1915 Serbia, Russia, France, Britain, Italy 1915, Romania 1916 US and Greece – 1917- allies Battlefronts o Western- France/Belgium o Eastern- Russia o Alpine- Italy/Austria-Hungary o Fighting b/w colonial powers in Africa o British form alliance with Arabs against Ottoman Empire Stalemate o Infantry attack repelled by machine guns o Soldiers stuck in trenches for 4.5 years o Central powers almost forced France surrender o Battle lines moved little US entry, Russian exit o US – vitally important Triggered by resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare Sympathetic to Allies Public divided b/c of immigrants from Central Europe Sinking of passenger ships with American civilians aboard enter war o Russia- efforts collapsed after Revolution of 1917 o US unable to send England and France with enough men and supplies Battle of Verdun Battle of Somme – 1916 o Intense bombardment by allies o Moved out of trenches o Germans attack British Collapse of Central Powers- 1818 o Austria surrenders- Bulgaria and Ottomans already defeated o War of attrition people with more troops will win Germans gain movement when US enters- unsuccessful o Wilson’s 14 points Peace without victors Self-determination for all nationalities Disarmament Freedom of the seas International peace-keeping body o Germans felt they had not lost (no war on German soil); felt they were sold out by politicians 4/13 Zimmerman telegram- aggravated relations b/w US and Germany o Germany to Mexico – if US entered war, if Mexico took Germany’s side, Germany would grant Texas and New Mexico left No secret diplomacy- one of reasons for WWI (alliances) Try to reduce arms to lowest level possible International relationships, alliances, the league of nations (avoid future wars) First total war o Government is in control; war encompasses entire nation and has no limits; states wanted total victory; o Control economy and industrial production o Develop sophisticated propaganda o Rationing of food o Fuel and clothing o Every man 17-60 regarded as soldiers o Female labor- no equal pay Peace of Paris- 5 treaties o Permanent peace arrangements – 1919 o Treaty of Versailles – June 28 Allied occupation of the Rhineland for 15 years Demilitarize the Rhineland If Germany ever attacked France in the future, the US would support the French o League of Nations Commission to run the Czar basin in Germany for 15 years Area was to decide whether they wanted to be part of France or Germany Danzig- controlled by the L of N US never joins o All German colonies were taken away Limited German army to 100,000 Forbade military conscription in Germany Reduced German navy to a token force o War reparations Couldn’t decide how much Germans owe- open ended commission Article 231- placed sole blame for WWI on Germany and its allies Negotiations conducted in secret, only involved victors Germans thought war was a stalemate War left Germans weak but not unbroken – unwilling to accept defeat or surrender dream of expansion Hitler dismantles treaty Totalitarian o Fascism- Mussolini o Natzism- Hitler o Communism- Lenin and Stalin o Socialism- Marxism o 1 governing party- control over social, intellectual, and political aspects through use of terror o Collective means everything and individualism means nothing Hitler Stalin Feels Germans have been betrayed by Successor to Lenin the peace signers of the Versailles Against strict authority treaty Becomes General Secretary of the Enlists in war after being homeless and Communist Party manipulates leaders not being accepted to art school to gain power Mein Kampf- written in jail; his idea of aKilled or exiled enemies better Germany; antisemitism Paranoid Elected chancellor because people Leader purge thought they could control him