Human Bio classnotes week of 04/11
Human Bio classnotes week of 04/11 BSC 2023
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eleonora Sacks on Monday April 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 2023 at Florida International University taught by Paul Sharp in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Human Biology in Biology at Florida International University.
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Date Created: 04/18/16
4/18/16 11:16 AM Cont. Endocrine System • Thyroid Gland: endocrine gland in the neck that produces and secretes the following hormones: • Thyroxine (T4): promotes growth and development, increases metabolic rate • Calcitonin: decreases blood calcium level • Parathyroid glands: embedded in the posterior surface of thyroid. A total of 4 parathyroid glands. Produces and secretes: • Parathyroid hormone: increases the blood calcium level • Calcitriol: hormone produced by the kidneys, so that the intestines can absorb calcium easier. • Pancreas: produces digestive enzymes and the hormones insulin and glucagon • Insulin: lowers blood glucose levels by promoting uptake by cells and converting glucose to glycogen in liver and skeletal muscles • Glucagon: raises blood glucose level by causing the liver to break down glycogen. • • Adrenal glands: found on top of each kidney, consist of inner adrenal medulla and outer adrenal cortex • Medulla: secretes the hormone epinephrine (adrenaline). This hormone is short term effective. • Cortex: secretes mineralocorticoids (like aldosterone) and glucocorticoids (like cortisol). These hormones are for long term effect. • foto de stress response Reproductive system: • Organ system that contains male of female organs specialized in the production of offspring • Gonad: primary sex organs that produce gametes • Ovary: produces eggs • Testis: produces sperm • Gamete: haploid sec cell, the egg or sperm which join in fertilization to join a zygote • Germ line cells: cells that are set aside from somatic cells during zygote development. these cells will eventually undergo meiosis to produce gametes • Somatic cells: any human cells except those that are destined to form gametes • • The average length of the un-stimulated vagina is 3.25 inches. When stimulated, the vagina is 4.75 inches. • Sperm can last in the female reproductive system for 4-5 days. The fertilized egg lasts 6-24 hours. • When women are born they already possess all of the eggs that they will ever need. Once they reach puberty, a small amount of these eggs are chosen to develop further. • Males ejaculate between 2-5ml of semen (one teaspoon) • Vasectomy: procedure that prevents sperm from going into the urethra because the vas deferens is cut or knotted. Doctors make the most vasectomies in March because of March Madness (basketball tournament). • Spermatogenesis: picture. A spermatogonium undergoes mitosis and produces 2 daughter cells. One of these undergoes spermatogenesis while the other stays behind and then that's the one that will do mitosis the next time. • Male reproductive anatomy: • Male external genitalea: external (can be seen), penis and scrotum. The average size of a penis is approx. 5.5 inches. 30% of the world, 75% in US, and 58% of newborns today are circumcised. • o Penis: organ for copulation and urination. Designed to deliver sperm to the female reproductive tract o Glans penis: enlarged tip of the penis o Foreskin: loose skin covering penis that slides distally to form a cuff of skin around glans. This is what's removed during circumcision. o Scrotum: pouch of skin that covers the testes. Hangs outside abdominopelvic cavity. It's 3 degrees lower than the temperature inside the body. o Testes: paired male gonads within the scrotum that produce sperm and male sex organs. The testes are outside the body, inside the scrotum because if they were inside the body, that temperature would not be ideal for sperm production. If it gets cold outside, the scrotum pulls them closer to the body so that they receive heat. Parts: § § Seminiferous tubules: long coiled tubules contained within chambers of the testes, where sperm are produced. "Sperm factories" § Spermatogenic cells: give rise to sperm and make up most of the epithelial wall of the seminiferous tubules. Sperm is produced everyday from puberty until death § Interstitial cells: located in connective tissue surrounding seminiferous tubules. They produce and secrete androgens (testosterone) into interstitial fluid. § Epididymis: coiled tubule next to the testes where sperm mature and may be stored for a short time. It serves as a final maturation center and empties into vas deferens § Vas deferens: tube that leads from the epididymis to the urethra in makes and stores sperm up to several months.
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