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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Helen Shymanski on Sunday February 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY-P 304 at Indiana University taught by Rydell in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 122 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 02/15/15
Chapter 5 Review Summary Develooment of SelfConcept Origins of the Self Ability to selfrecognize is limited to humans Chimps and orangutans can pass the mirror selfrecognition test Mirror SelfRecognition Mirror is placed in a cage with the chimp who acclimates to the device A red dot is placed on the forehead of chimp The chimp will have one of two reactions A The chimp will touch the red dot touch itself showing it understands the mirror is a re ection of its form B The chimp will touch the mirror showing it does not understand the mirror is a re ection of its form rather an image Humans begin selfrecognize between 1824 months In adulthood the self has 4 components selfknowledge selfcontrol impression management selfesteem Selfknowledge our beliefs about who we are and the way in which we formulate and organize this information Selfcontrol the way in which we make plans and execute decisions lmpression Management how we present ourselves to others SelfEsteem the way we feel about ourselves SelfKnowledge SelfKnowledge is accumulated through cultural and social in uences 1 Cultural Differences a People who grow up in Western cultures tend to have an independent view of the self whereas people who grow up in Eastern cultures tend to have an interdependent view b lnterdependent view sees individual as belonging to a whole group and all aspects of life are ltered through the various roles sibling child friend etc c Independent view sees a person as an individual and lters information through a personalized lter 2 Gender Differences a Women tend to have relational interdependence focusing more on close relationships b M tend to have collective interdependence focusing on their membership in larger groups 3 Role of Introspection a SelfAwareness Theory offers that people focus on themselves to evaluate and compare their behavior to their internal standards and values i Using causal theories culturally based b They assume that their attitudes match the reasons that plausible and easy to verbalize leading to reasonsgenerated attitude change 4 Observing our Own Behavior a People also gain selfknowledge by observing their behavior individually SelfPerception Theory Argues that when our attitudes and feelings are uncertain or ambiguous we infer these states by observing our own behavior and the situation 1 An overjusti cation effect occurs when people focus on the extrinsic reasons for their behavior and underestimate their intrinsic 2 Twofactor theory of emotion emotional experience is the result of a twostep selfperception process in which people rst experience arousal and then seek an appropriate explanation for it a sometimes people make mistaken inferences about what39s causing them to be aroused Mindsets Some people have a xed mindset about their abilities meaning they have a set amount of ability that can39t change Growth Mindset is the idea that their abilities are malleable qualities that they can cultivate and grow People with xed mindset are more likely to give up after setbacks and are less likely to work on and hone their skills People with growth mindset view setbacks as opportunities to improve through hard work Using Other People to Know Ourselves Our selfconcepts are shaped by the people around us Social Comparison Theory We learn about our own abilities and attitudes by comparing ourselves to other people People tend to automatically adopt the attitudes of those they like and want to interact with SelfControl 1 Executive Function of the self a Requires energy on completing tasks that could be spend completing another task suppressed or controlled b RESEARCH suggests that glucose in the blood is the will power behind selfcontrol 2 Impression Management People try to get others to see them as they want to be seen Integration and SelfHandicapping 1 Management Strategies a lngratiation Using attery language to make yourself likable to another often a person of higher status b Selfhandicapping People create obstacle and excuses for themselves so that if they do poorly on a task they can avoid blaming themselves Culture Impression Management SelfEnhancment 1 Desire to manage the image we present to others LExists across culturesimages change depending on culture SelfEsteem 1 Allow us to persevere in the face of failure ie terror management theory 2 Narcissism extremely high selfregard combined with lack of empathy toward others SelfKnowledge 1 SelfConcept The content of the self or knowledge of who we are memory 2 Active Self The current version of self what we think about ourselves 3 SelfAwareness The act of thinking about the self 4 Function of the Self a SelfSchemas structures that help us to organize information about ourselves i ln uences what we notice think about and remember in the environment ii Can be situational or chronic 1 Motherhood some de ne themselves as mothers in all situations while others de ne themselves as a mother in context of their children compartmentalizing the role b SelfReference The tendency to remember things better if you relate it to the self Cultural Differences 1 Independent SelfConstrual De ning the self in terms of internal thoughts traits feelings and actions 2 lnterdependent SelfConstrual De ning the self in terms of relationships and roles have no self outside of relational context SelfRegulation Humans are the only species that can imagine the future plan for events set long terms goals not based on survival Humans can control behavior through mutual regulation mental control ie self control SelfRegulatory Resource Model Resources are limited control over the self is like a muscle SelfDiscrepancy Theory 1 Differentiating the 3 selves a Actual Self who we actually are at this moment with all our good and bad characteristics b Ideal Self the person who we would like to be c Ought Self the person that we feel we should be 2 SelfDiscrepancies a Actualideal discrepancies we feel either happy or depressed b ActualOught discrepancies we feel either relaxed or anxious c Extent between the two is the fundamental determination how far off are you from the ideal vaernetic Model of SelfRegulation We compare ourselves to our current state to our internal standards think of a thermostat When we move away from our ideal we notice this and try to regulate our behavior Velocity speed with which we are moving to our desired state We are happy to the extent that we are moving quickly towards our goals We are unhappy to the extent that we are moving quickly away from our goals Process cue activation D internal process D thoughts feelings behaviors etc lntrospection ook inward and examine their own thoughts feelings and motives Find some answers but generally not a good way to gain knowledge Even during introspection the reasons for our feeling actions etc often remain hidden Studies have shown people spend relatively little time thinking about themselves People come up with reasons for why they acted felt or behaved a certain way Based on causal theories theories about the causes of one s own feelings and behaviors earning is attributed to surrounding culture reasons for how we feel about a person or object Reasons Generated Attitude Change attitude change resulting from thinking about the reasons for one s attitudes people assume that their attitudes are plausible and realizable SelfPerception infer our attitudes by looking at how we acted or how we felt ook at ourselves like an unbiased observer Ony necessary when we are unsure of our beliefs We examine the situation for situational constraints TwoFactor Theorv of Emotion 1 Step One Experience physiological arousal selfperception 2 Step Two Seek an appropriate label or explanation for it Misattribution of Arousal People make mistaken inferences about why they feel the way they do Situationa arousal leads people to attribute the arousal to a person or object even though the arousal is not stimulated from the person or object Exampes to consider 1 Bridge Experiment Attractive woman asks questions on rickety bridge or after when siting down More men will call for a date if they talked on the bridge 2 Offering Children Money goal is to promote lifelong love of learning money actual desensitizes children who actually liked reading ntrinsic motivation v extrinsic motivation Sefperception I am reading for money Preserving Intrinsic Interest When interest is lowdoesn39t matter Task Contingent Rewards Getting money for reading Performance Contingent Rewards Get a rewards only if you do well If you succeed it raises selfesteem and may lead to increasing the behavior If you fail however it may lower selfesteem and lead to a decrease in behavior Social Comparison Theory 1 We learn about ourselves by comparing ourselves to others 2 Social Comparison is the evaluation of one social entity with others 3 People have a drive to evaluate their opinions and abilities 4 There is no objective standard for when we engage in social comparison a Normally when someone is uncertain of themselves 5 Initial impulse is to compare the self to anyone 6 Not all comparisons are equally informative IMPORTANT TERMS 1 Independent View 2 Interdependent View 3 Introspection 4 SelfAwareness Theory 5 Causal Theories 6 ReasonsGenerated Attitude Change 7 SelfPerception Theory 8 Intrinsic Motivation 9 Extrinsic Motivation 100verjustification Effect 11TaskContingent Rewards 12PerformanceContingent Rewards 13TwoFactor Theory of Emotion 14Misattribution of Arousal 15Fixed Mindset 16Growth Mindset 17Socia Comparison Theory 18Upward Social Comparison 19Downward Social Comparison 20Socia Tuning 21mpression Management 22ngratiation 23Sef Handicapping 24SefEsteem 25Terror Management Theory 26Narcissism
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