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SPED 210 Chapter 12 Summary

by: Keely Egelhoff

SPED 210 Chapter 12 Summary 210

Keely Egelhoff
GPA 3.6

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Special Education
Dr. Logan
Class Notes
Special Education
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Keely Egelhoff on Monday April 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 210 at Western Illinois University taught by Dr. Logan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Special Education in Education and Teacher Studies at Western Illinois University.

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Date Created: 04/18/16
Keely Egelhoff SPED 210 Logan 4/13/16 Chapter 12  Defining Blindness - Blindness is visual acuity of 20/200 or less in the better eye with correction, low vision is 20/70 to 20/200 - Blindness is a field of vision no greater than 20 degrees - Blindness is needing to use braille or aural methods  Prevalence - Blindness is primarily an adult disability - Fewer than 0.04% of students from age 6-17 are identified as visually impaired  Characteristics of the eye - Objects are seen when an electrical impulse travels from the optic nerve at the back of the eye to the occipital lobes of the brain - Light rays pass through many part of the eye before it gets to the optic nerve  Measured and Causes - Visual acuity for far distances is most often measured by using the Snellen chart - Vision teachers can perform functional assessments to determine how students use their vision in everyday situation - Most common visual problems result from error of refraction - Myopia (nearsightedness) - Hyperopia (farsightedness) - Astigmatism (blurred vision) - Some conditions affect both adults and children - Cataracts cause clouding of the lens of the eye - Cortical visual impairment results from brain damage of dysfunction - Retinopathy of prematurity can be caused by excessive concentrations of oxygen or other factors - Retinitis pigmentosa another cause primarily in children usually causes tunnel vision and night blindness - Improper muscle functioning can cause visual problems  Psychological and behavioral - Language development is largely unaffected, although subtle developmental delays can occur especially in infancy - Individuals may experience early delays in conceptual development which do not last long - Motor delays in infancy are common - Orientation and mobility skills depend on spatial abilities - Two myths are that people who are blind have an extra sense and that they automatically develop better acuity in their other senses - Phonological awareness is important for learning to read print or braille - Some people with visual impairment engage in stereotypic behaviors  Educational considerations for learners with visual impairments - The ability to read braille is a crucial skill - Braille bills have helped to ensure that students receive instruction in braille - The use of remaining sight is an important skill - Magnifying devices can be used for close or distance vision - Listening skills are important - O&M skills are of critical importance - Preschoolers and young children can learn cane techniques - Some find using a guide dog very helpful - Guide dogs do not take people anywhere; people usually need to know where they are going - Guide dogs can alert their owners to dangerous areas. - Human guides although not recommended as a primary means of mobility can be helpful at times. - Technological aids are becoming increasingly important - Learners with visual impairments should not become so dependent on technology that they  Progress of students with visual impairments - Teachers can monitor progress in braille skills involved in reading and math using curriculum-based measurement - Testing accommodations often include testing in braille large print materials or extended time - Intensive intervention should begin as early as possible - It is important to try and involve parents - Many authorities now recommend that preschoolers be taught cane techniques - Most people who are blind can lead very independent lives - Sighted society needs to be careful not to treat those with visual impairments as helpless - Many working-age with visual impairments are unemployed or are overqualified for the jobs they hold I think that the main thing the general public should know about blind people is that they are still people. Some think that since they cannot see that they need assistants all the time. While these students and adults might need help they may find all of the additional daily help to be suffocating. They are still independent people who just require a little assistant here and there. Those who are blind have many skills to provide the world. Guide dogs provide independence for those who are blind and live alone. Employers should not be afraid to hire blind people. They have as many kills as a person with sight they just need to accommodate their need.


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