New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders

by: Bailey Gabrish

Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders Psych 1010

Marketplace > Science > Psych 1010 > Chapter 15 Psychological Disorders
Bailey Gabrish

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover the chapter in the textbook and the in-class lecture.
Introduction to Psychology
Melinda Fabian
Class Notes
Psychology, Social Science, Introduction to Psychology, Science
25 ?




Popular in Introduction to Psychology

Popular in Science

This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Gabrish on Monday April 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1010 at a university taught by Melinda Fabian in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views.

Similar to Psych 1010 at University


Reviews for Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/18/16
Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders Normality Versus Disorder  Psychological Disorder – syndrome (collection of symptoms) marked by a clinically  significant disturbance (maladaptive behaviors that impair function) in an individual’s  cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior (which typically causes distress) Medical Model  Phillipe Pinel proposed madness is not demonic but is a sickness of the mind o He wanted better moral treatment for disorders  Medical Model – concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed,  treated, and cured through treatment in a hospital o Suggested by syphilis infecting the brain o Diagnose to treat (helps to know the nature and causes of disorder)  Epigenetics – study of environmental influences on gene expression that occur with a  change in DNA Classifying Psychological Disorders  Classification aims to o Predict disorder’s future course o Suggest appropriate treatment o Prompt research into its causes  DSM 5 – American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of  Mental Disorders Fifth Edition; widely used system for classifying disorders through  describing symptoms o Easy to diagnose with clear descriptions, justifies payment for treatment, and used worldwide to study disorders o Criticized as casting too wide of a net or being value judgments and creating  labels  Rosenhan study in which people falsely said they were hearing voices to a  psychiatrist yet answered other diagnostic questions truthfully and all were diagnosed with a disorder  The labels placed on them led the participants to be held in hospitals for  long periods of time despite claiming they were no longer hearing voices Prevalence of Psychological Disorders  1 in 4 Americans suffer from a disorder  Lowest amount in Shanghai and highest in US o Immigrant Paradox – immigrants are less likely to have a disorder while US  citizens are more likely Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts Risks for a Disorder Protective Factors  Academic failure  Aerobic exercise  Birth complications  Community  Abuse or neglect  Parenting  Insomnia  Economic independence  Pain  Control  Family conflict  Security  Low socioeconomic status  Literacy  Illness  Early bonding  Neurological imbalance  Cope with stress  Personal loss  Self­esteem  Disabilities  Social skills/support  Trauma  Stressful life events  Life disorders strike by early adulthood Anxiety Disorders  Anxiety Disorders – characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive  behaviors that reduce anxiety  Generalized Anxiety Disorder – person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state  of autonomic nervous system arousal o Excessive and uncontrollable worry o Women twice as likely to have it  Panic Disorder – unpredictable, minutes­long episodes of intense dread in which one  experiences terror and chest pain, choking, or frightening sensations followed by the  worry of another attack o Agoraphobia – fear and avoidance of situations where escape may be difficult  when panic strikes  Phobia – persistent, irrational fear or the avoidance of an object, activity, or situation o Social Anxiety Disorder – intense fear of being watched and judged by others OCD  Obsessive Compulsive Disorder – unwanted, repetitive thoughts (obsessions), actions  (compulsions), or both that interfere with living and cause distress PTSD  Posttraumatic Stress Disorder – characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social  withdrawal, jump anxiety, numbness of feeling, and insomnia that lingers for four weeks  or more after a traumatic experience Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts o The greater the emotional stress during trauma, the higher the risk for PTSD  symptoms  5­10% of people that experience trauma have it for four weeks to a  lifetime  When bad events happen unpredictably, anxiety disorders develop  Two part conditioning process o Stimulus Generalization – develop fear of similar frightful events  (overgeneralization)  Classical conditioning associates certain things with fears o Reinforcement – maintains fears  Avoidance reduces anxiety and therefore, reinforces it  Cognition helps us learn through observation and past experiences what to fear o Observational learning in humans and monkeys o Worried thoughts, interpretations, hypervigilance, loss of control, helplessness o Cognitive errors, irrational beliefs, mistaken appraisal and misinterpretation  Genes can make us more vulnerable o Twin studies o Fearlessness runs in families o Inborn, sensitive high strung temperaments o Regulate neurotransmitters  Experiences create new brain pathways o Over arousal of brain areas involved in impulse control and habitual behaviors o Trauma burns fear in the amygdala  Evolutionary explanations Depressive Disorders  Major Depressive Disorder – person experiences, in the absence of drugs or other  medical condition, two or more weeks with five or more symptoms at least one of which  must be either depressed mood or loss of interest and pleasure o Depressed mood o Reduce interest o Challenges regulating weight and appetite o Challenge regulating sleep o Physical agitation o Less energy o Worthlessness o Problems in thinking and concentrating o Thoughts of suicide  Mania – hyperactive, wildly optimistic state in which dangerously poor judgment is  common o Sexuality, racing thoughts, hyper sociality  Bipolar Disorder – person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania (manic­depressive disorder) Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts  Many behavioral and cognitive changes accompany depression  Depression is widespread o Appears worldwide with emotional, behavioral, cognitive, and physical symptoms  Women’s risk of major depression is double men’s  Most major depressive episodes self­terminate  Stressful events related to work, marriage and close relationships often precede  depression along with low self­esteem  With each generation, depression strikes earlier and affects more people with the highest  rates in developed countries among young adults  Depressive/ bipolar disorders run in families o Twin studies  Diminished brain activity in depression and more in mania  Norepinephrine is scarce during depression and overabundant in mania o Serotonin affects mood and arousal  Healthy diet leads to better health  Alcohol can lead to depression  Self­defeating beliefs and negative explanatory style feed depression o Low self­esteem and learned helplessness increase depression  Rumination – compulsive fretting, overthinking about our problems and their causes  Depressed people explain things as global, stable, and internal  State Dependent Memory – tendency to recall events as good or bad depending on their  current mood o Depressed mood leads to changes in thinking and makes life more stressful  Stressful Experiences→Negative Explanatory Style→Depressed Mood→Cognitive and  Behavioral Changes Suicide  Suicide rates have o National differences o Racial differences (more in whites than Native Americans) o Gender differences (women more likely to attempt and men more likely to be  successful) o Age (peaks in middle age) o Group differences (rich, nonreligious, divorced) o Day of the week (more in the middle of the week)  800,000 people each year typically commit suicide when their depression is lifting o Impulsive  Through nonsuicidal self­injury, people o Find relief from negative thoughts  o Attract attention o Relieve guilt o Get others to change negative behaviors Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts o Fit in with a peer group Schizophrenia  Psychosis – mental split from reality  Schizophrenia – delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and diminished,  inappropriate emotional expression o Positive Symptoms – presence of problems  Hallucinations (which lead to bad ideas or self­harm) – disturbed  perception or sensory information  Delusions – false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur that may  accompany psychotic disorders (disorganized thinking) o Negative Symptoms – absence of healthy behaviors  Reduce sociality, mute, catatonia, anhedonia  Chronic Schizophrenia/ Process Schizophrenia – symptoms appear by late adolescence or early adulthood and, as people age, psychotic episodes last longer and recovery periods  shorten o Caused by poverty and social problems o Slow development and negative symptoms  Acute Schizophrenia/ Creative Schizophrenia – begins at any age frequently occurring in  response to an emotionally traumatic event and has extended recovery periods o Positive symptoms  Biological Causes o Excessive receptors for dopamine (D4 receptors), poor neural firing, intensifying  brain signals lead to hallucinations and paranoia o Low brain activity in frontal lobes and decline in brain waves o Increased activity in the thalamus and amygdala as if hallucinations are real o Cortex and corpus callosum are smaller than normal o Low birth weight, maternal diabetes, older paternal age, oxygen deprivation,  famine and fetal virus infections lead to schizophrenia  Predispositions to schizophrenia o 6/10 twins that share a prenatal environment are likely to have it together o More likely during flu season  Social Factors o Social withdrawal/abnormal behavior o Mother with severe schizophrenia o Separation from parents o Short attention and poor muscles o Emotional unpredictability o Solo play and poor peer relationships o Childhood physical, sexual, and emotional abuse  Birth complications o Biological factors are turned on by environmental factors Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts Dissociative Disorders  Dissociative Disorders – controversial, rare disorder in which conscious awareness  becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings  Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) – rare dissociative disorder in which a person  exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities (multiple personality disorder)  Criticisms o Is DID an extension of our normal capacity for personality shifts? o Short and localized history through recent cultural construction o Therapists look for multiple personalities o Extreme form of role playing  Rebuttals o Different people have different brain waves o A method of coping with anxiety or abuse Personality Disorders  Personality Disorders – inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social  functioning o Anxiety – ruled by fear of rejection o Eccentric/odd – no social attachments and flat affect o Dramatic – impulsivity, self­centered, antisocial, attention seeking  Antisocial Personality Disorder – person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, eve toward friends and family members, and may be aggressive, ruthless, or a con artist o Biological o Adaptive traits o Child abuse combined with genes o Decreased physiological arousal o Low stress hormones o Impulsive in childhood and unconcerned with rewards o Amygdala is smaller and frontal lobes are less active leading to criminal  tendencies o Hyperactive dopamine reward system Eating Disorders  Anorexia Nervosa – person, usually adolescent female, maintains starvation diet despite  being significantly underweight, sometimes accompanied by excessive exercise o Unrealistic body image and extreme ideal  Bulimia Nervosa – person alternates binge eating (usually of high calorie foods) with  purging (by vomiting or laxative use) or fasting  Binge Eating Disorder – significant binge eating episodes followed by distress, disgust,  or guilt but without the compensatory purging or fasting that marks bulimia nervosa Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts  Childhood influences o Other with eating disorder or cares about her own and her daughters weight o Negative self­evaluation in the family o Families with bulimia have higher incidence of childhood obesity o Families of those with anorexia are competitive, high­achieving, and protective  Low body image/ self­esteem  Cultural beauty preferences  Teasing, affluence, competition for mates


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.