Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders
Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders Psych 1010
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Date Created: 04/18/16
Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Chapter 15: Psychological Disorders Normality Versus Disorder Psychological Disorder – syndrome (collection of symptoms) marked by a clinically significant disturbance (maladaptive behaviors that impair function) in an individual’s cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior (which typically causes distress) Medical Model Phillipe Pinel proposed madness is not demonic but is a sickness of the mind o He wanted better moral treatment for disorders Medical Model – concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and cured through treatment in a hospital o Suggested by syphilis infecting the brain o Diagnose to treat (helps to know the nature and causes of disorder) Epigenetics – study of environmental influences on gene expression that occur with a change in DNA Classifying Psychological Disorders Classification aims to o Predict disorder’s future course o Suggest appropriate treatment o Prompt research into its causes DSM 5 – American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition; widely used system for classifying disorders through describing symptoms o Easy to diagnose with clear descriptions, justifies payment for treatment, and used worldwide to study disorders o Criticized as casting too wide of a net or being value judgments and creating labels Rosenhan study in which people falsely said they were hearing voices to a psychiatrist yet answered other diagnostic questions truthfully and all were diagnosed with a disorder The labels placed on them led the participants to be held in hospitals for long periods of time despite claiming they were no longer hearing voices Prevalence of Psychological Disorders 1 in 4 Americans suffer from a disorder Lowest amount in Shanghai and highest in US o Immigrant Paradox – immigrants are less likely to have a disorder while US citizens are more likely Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Risks for a Disorder Protective Factors Academic failure Aerobic exercise Birth complications Community Abuse or neglect Parenting Insomnia Economic independence Pain Control Family conflict Security Low socioeconomic status Literacy Illness Early bonding Neurological imbalance Cope with stress Personal loss Selfesteem Disabilities Social skills/support Trauma Stressful life events Life disorders strike by early adulthood Anxiety Disorders Anxiety Disorders – characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety Generalized Anxiety Disorder – person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal o Excessive and uncontrollable worry o Women twice as likely to have it Panic Disorder – unpredictable, minuteslong episodes of intense dread in which one experiences terror and chest pain, choking, or frightening sensations followed by the worry of another attack o Agoraphobia – fear and avoidance of situations where escape may be difficult when panic strikes Phobia – persistent, irrational fear or the avoidance of an object, activity, or situation o Social Anxiety Disorder – intense fear of being watched and judged by others OCD Obsessive Compulsive Disorder – unwanted, repetitive thoughts (obsessions), actions (compulsions), or both that interfere with living and cause distress PTSD Posttraumatic Stress Disorder – characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jump anxiety, numbness of feeling, and insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts o The greater the emotional stress during trauma, the higher the risk for PTSD symptoms 510% of people that experience trauma have it for four weeks to a lifetime When bad events happen unpredictably, anxiety disorders develop Two part conditioning process o Stimulus Generalization – develop fear of similar frightful events (overgeneralization) Classical conditioning associates certain things with fears o Reinforcement – maintains fears Avoidance reduces anxiety and therefore, reinforces it Cognition helps us learn through observation and past experiences what to fear o Observational learning in humans and monkeys o Worried thoughts, interpretations, hypervigilance, loss of control, helplessness o Cognitive errors, irrational beliefs, mistaken appraisal and misinterpretation Genes can make us more vulnerable o Twin studies o Fearlessness runs in families o Inborn, sensitive high strung temperaments o Regulate neurotransmitters Experiences create new brain pathways o Over arousal of brain areas involved in impulse control and habitual behaviors o Trauma burns fear in the amygdala Evolutionary explanations Depressive Disorders Major Depressive Disorder – person experiences, in the absence of drugs or other medical condition, two or more weeks with five or more symptoms at least one of which must be either depressed mood or loss of interest and pleasure o Depressed mood o Reduce interest o Challenges regulating weight and appetite o Challenge regulating sleep o Physical agitation o Less energy o Worthlessness o Problems in thinking and concentrating o Thoughts of suicide Mania – hyperactive, wildly optimistic state in which dangerously poor judgment is common o Sexuality, racing thoughts, hyper sociality Bipolar Disorder – person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania (manicdepressive disorder) Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Many behavioral and cognitive changes accompany depression Depression is widespread o Appears worldwide with emotional, behavioral, cognitive, and physical symptoms Women’s risk of major depression is double men’s Most major depressive episodes selfterminate Stressful events related to work, marriage and close relationships often precede depression along with low selfesteem With each generation, depression strikes earlier and affects more people with the highest rates in developed countries among young adults Depressive/ bipolar disorders run in families o Twin studies Diminished brain activity in depression and more in mania Norepinephrine is scarce during depression and overabundant in mania o Serotonin affects mood and arousal Healthy diet leads to better health Alcohol can lead to depression Selfdefeating beliefs and negative explanatory style feed depression o Low selfesteem and learned helplessness increase depression Rumination – compulsive fretting, overthinking about our problems and their causes Depressed people explain things as global, stable, and internal State Dependent Memory – tendency to recall events as good or bad depending on their current mood o Depressed mood leads to changes in thinking and makes life more stressful Stressful Experiences→Negative Explanatory Style→Depressed Mood→Cognitive and Behavioral Changes Suicide Suicide rates have o National differences o Racial differences (more in whites than Native Americans) o Gender differences (women more likely to attempt and men more likely to be successful) o Age (peaks in middle age) o Group differences (rich, nonreligious, divorced) o Day of the week (more in the middle of the week) 800,000 people each year typically commit suicide when their depression is lifting o Impulsive Through nonsuicidal selfinjury, people o Find relief from negative thoughts o Attract attention o Relieve guilt o Get others to change negative behaviors Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts o Fit in with a peer group Schizophrenia Psychosis – mental split from reality Schizophrenia – delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and diminished, inappropriate emotional expression o Positive Symptoms – presence of problems Hallucinations (which lead to bad ideas or selfharm) – disturbed perception or sensory information Delusions – false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur that may accompany psychotic disorders (disorganized thinking) o Negative Symptoms – absence of healthy behaviors Reduce sociality, mute, catatonia, anhedonia Chronic Schizophrenia/ Process Schizophrenia – symptoms appear by late adolescence or early adulthood and, as people age, psychotic episodes last longer and recovery periods shorten o Caused by poverty and social problems o Slow development and negative symptoms Acute Schizophrenia/ Creative Schizophrenia – begins at any age frequently occurring in response to an emotionally traumatic event and has extended recovery periods o Positive symptoms Biological Causes o Excessive receptors for dopamine (D4 receptors), poor neural firing, intensifying brain signals lead to hallucinations and paranoia o Low brain activity in frontal lobes and decline in brain waves o Increased activity in the thalamus and amygdala as if hallucinations are real o Cortex and corpus callosum are smaller than normal o Low birth weight, maternal diabetes, older paternal age, oxygen deprivation, famine and fetal virus infections lead to schizophrenia Predispositions to schizophrenia o 6/10 twins that share a prenatal environment are likely to have it together o More likely during flu season Social Factors o Social withdrawal/abnormal behavior o Mother with severe schizophrenia o Separation from parents o Short attention and poor muscles o Emotional unpredictability o Solo play and poor peer relationships o Childhood physical, sexual, and emotional abuse Birth complications o Biological factors are turned on by environmental factors Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Dissociative Disorders Dissociative Disorders – controversial, rare disorder in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) – rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities (multiple personality disorder) Criticisms o Is DID an extension of our normal capacity for personality shifts? o Short and localized history through recent cultural construction o Therapists look for multiple personalities o Extreme form of role playing Rebuttals o Different people have different brain waves o A method of coping with anxiety or abuse Personality Disorders Personality Disorders – inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning o Anxiety – ruled by fear of rejection o Eccentric/odd – no social attachments and flat affect o Dramatic – impulsivity, selfcentered, antisocial, attention seeking Antisocial Personality Disorder – person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, eve toward friends and family members, and may be aggressive, ruthless, or a con artist o Biological o Adaptive traits o Child abuse combined with genes o Decreased physiological arousal o Low stress hormones o Impulsive in childhood and unconcerned with rewards o Amygdala is smaller and frontal lobes are less active leading to criminal tendencies o Hyperactive dopamine reward system Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa – person, usually adolescent female, maintains starvation diet despite being significantly underweight, sometimes accompanied by excessive exercise o Unrealistic body image and extreme ideal Bulimia Nervosa – person alternates binge eating (usually of high calorie foods) with purging (by vomiting or laxative use) or fasting Binge Eating Disorder – significant binge eating episodes followed by distress, disgust, or guilt but without the compensatory purging or fasting that marks bulimia nervosa Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Childhood influences o Other with eating disorder or cares about her own and her daughters weight o Negative selfevaluation in the family o Families with bulimia have higher incidence of childhood obesity o Families of those with anorexia are competitive, highachieving, and protective Low body image/ selfesteem Cultural beauty preferences Teasing, affluence, competition for mates