Chapter 4 Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Candace Brooks on Sunday February 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CH 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Paul Rupar in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 142 views.
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Date Created: 02/15/15
Chapter 4 Valence Electrons and the Periodic Table Valence Electrons o The electrons in all the sublevels with the highest principal energy shell are called the valence electrons o Electrons in the lower energy shells are called core electrons o The chemistry of an atom is determined by the valence electrons Metals vs nonmetals o Metals ten to lose electrons during a chemical reaction 0 Non metals tend to gain electrons during a chemical reaction 0 Metalloids 0 Properties of both metals and nonmetals The Noble Gas and Electron Configuration 0 The noble gases have eight valence electrons 0 Eight Valence Electron 0 Atoms in the eight valence electron are very stable 0 Other s and p block elements want to be like a noble gas 0 Properties and Electron Configuration 0 Elements in the same column have similar chemistry 0 The chemistry of an element is determined by valence electrons 0 Electron Configurations of Main Group Cations in their Ground State 0 Cations form when the atom loses electrons from the valence shell 0 Electron Configurations of Main Group Anions in their Ground State 0 Anions form when the atom gains electrons in the valence shell Chapter 4 Periodic Trends Shielding o In a multielectron system electrons are simultaneously attracted to the nucleus and repelled by each other I Effective Nuclear Charge 0 The effective nuclear charge is the net positive charge that is attracting a particular electron 15 Clicker Question Calculate the effective nuclear charge for valence electrons for carbon and uorine What are the consequences Answer F valence electrons will be held closer to the nucleus I QuantumMechanical Explanation for the Trends in Cation Radius 0 When atoms form cations highest energy electrons are removed I Choose the larger of each pair 0 S or SAZ I Answer 9 2 0 Ca or Caquot2 I Answer Ca 0 Brquot or Kr I Answer Br I Ionization Energy 0 Energy needed to remove an electron from an atom or ion
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