Lecture 04/06 ANTH 10000
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Viktoryia Zhuleva on Monday April 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 10000 at Purdue University taught by Dr. Richard Blanton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Anthropology in Liberal Arts at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 04/18/16
Lecture 04/06 How is society Governed when there is no state? small scale societies often lack a structure of authority able to settle disputes through adjudication Would societies lacking a governing authority devolve into persistent state of conflict between factions or even feuding, and be plagued by crime? Sawahili Lamu AD 1000-1900 How to incorporate a culturally diverse society (Islamic, African, and South Asian immigrants and cultures)? Unilineal descent reckoning was not an option Sawahili refers to a society that is part of African Swahili Lamu To maintain order in a diverse society: o Divide society into two groups (miety organizations), each with its own governing councils and supreme courts o Side A="old" money, long-standing, strongly Arabized families o Side B="new" money based on trade; recent immigrants, many from Africa or South Asia Neighbourhouds elected representatives to a council, on of each moiety half The two main councils elected representatives to serve as the polity's principal administrator in rotation with the other moiety half )four- year terms) to run the government on a day-to-day basis Bu important decisions had to be approved by the opposite moiety half Moiety as an Organization Structure Moieties are common in societies in the size range of +/- 10,000 Moieties allow for power-sharing that gives voice to diverse fractions Friendly competition (in Lamu, wrestling matches asn poetry contests) between moiety halves emphasizes unity within diversity Cheyenne Native Americans of the High Plains. The period described: Late 18 to Mid-19 th Centuries 18 and 19 centuries – much wealth on the high plains – bison fur was exported in exchange for horses and European goods (including guns) Increased wasfare among the different tribes and among fractions led by wealthy fur traders (A faction is a voluntary organization that forms for purpose) How to build a viable Cheyenne society in light of the wrowing wealth, inequality, warfare and competition resources? Cheyenne ethnigenesis focused on building up the sense of Cheyenne identity and a person's obligations to society (group orientation), whil not entirely limitins the actions of wealthy factions leaders (self orientation) The solution was fro people to have two identities: 1. A competetive, warlike one (winter phase) that allowed maximum expression of wealth accumulation and competition (this was also the time when bison fur was thickest and most valuabble) 2. A group-orieneted identity that emphasized each person's obligation to the group (the Cheyenne tribe) (summer phase) Summer Phase All Cheyenne join at campground Ritual cycles emphasize cheyenne origins and culture – thus emphasizing group identity over self Cheyenne Council of 44 Chiefs Ambitious, wealthy faction leaders were selected to serve on the governing council for 5 years term As chiefs they must 1. Behave generally 2. Cease participation in wars 3. Emphasize civic identity and service above self Trust in the council is based on their "costly signaling" of devotion to office The leagues of the Five Iroquois Tribes 16 through 18 century fur trade was a source of wealth but also competition and warfare among Native American groups Leagues of the Iroquois as an Early Form of "Federalist" Goevernance How to incorporate the independednt tribes into a viable government that could benefit all The solution was to allow each tribe to maintain most aspects of self governance while selecting representatives (sachems) to serve on the League Council (50 named offices) League of the Iroquois The League's functions were restricted to matters of warfare, diplomacy, and trade, representing the five tribes as a unified whole; sechens were expected to work for the benefit of all five tribes League of the Iroquis Men chosen to represent clans on the League council (chosen by leading women of each matriclan) were not allowed to serve in military capacities Wars were fought by "Pine Tree Chiefs" - great warriors who were selected to organize wars but were not council members All council decisions have to be unanimous
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