Lecture 04/11 ANTH 10000
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Viktoryia Zhuleva on Monday April 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 10000 at Purdue University taught by Dr. Richard Blanton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Anthropology in Liberal Arts at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 04/18/16
Lecture 04.11 Are humans good cooperators? Humans generally are not good cooperators "tragedy of the Commons" According to the "tragedy of the Commons" argument, only private ownership of resources will provide for long-term conservation because common (shared) ownership always leads to over-use Is it possible to sustainably manage a Commons? Are Humans Good Cooperators? Yes or No o Humans are better understood as "Contingent Cooperators" o The cognitive capacity for Theory of Mind gives humans (and some great apes) the ability to estimate the probable outcomes of one's behavior o This includes the probable social consequences of selfish and asocial behavior compared with the probable outcomes of prosocial, cooperative behavior How to make cooperation more likely Cooperation is Fostered by Institutions: Institutions include: o Rules or other social conventions o The organizational capacity to enforce rules o Cultural beliefs that foster cooperative behavior What social factors are likely to predispose persons to behave cooperatively? There are three cases in which there are high levels of corporations that have been successful th o By the 13 century AD the people of Torbel realized that over-use of grazing and forestry resources was damaging delicate alpine environments o They decided to convert susceptible resources into what we now call "common-pool" resources o Common pool implies that the group that benefits from resource also cooperatively manages it Torbel's Resources as "common pool" By 1483 the community as a whole decided to communally purchase all forested lands and Highlands alpine meadows Members of the community retained the right to use the communal land, but with use restrictions to assure long-terms sustainability Private land could be sold to outsiders, but outsiders could not gain access to communal lands – only descendants of community members could The part communal/part private ownership pattern has persisted for over 500 years – the community still is a producer of cheeses for export Dedicated environments have been presented sustainably Balinese Water Management Irrigated paddy (wet rice production) is highly productive, but water flowing from upland sources must be carefully allocated to ensure equal access and to prevent overuse Irrigators must cooperate to maintain dams, weirs and canals - "free riders" may attempt to gain access to water buy no contributed to this maintenance work – and there is always an "upstream-downstream" problem Groups of local irrigators are organized as "subaks" - irrigation cooperatives, each of which also has a temple (20-50 or so irrigators) Groups of subaks are also organized into larger cooperative/temple complexes (religious congregations) Management of the whole system (hundreds of subaks) is also required to avoid conflicts between upstream and downstream water users This requires a control mechanism governing the whole system, but what will prevent governing agents from exhibiting "agency", e.g. taking bribes or in other ways showing favoritism or other corrupt practices? o System that they developed: One person has authority over all water and water-related decision-making The chief of the "Template of Crater Lake" - the Jero Gde How to assure confidence in the Jero Gde Building Confidence in Governing System Each Jero Gde was identified as a young boy and removed from his family – he never marries and this has no family or even distant kin – he lived alone (with servants) in the main temple The Jero Gde is not likely to show favorism (e.g. nepotism) or exhibit other forms of agency (selfish behavior) Confidence in the Jero Gde He undergoes years of training in the management of the water system until he is able to assume managerial responsibility, and devotes his life to matters related to irrigation management Archaeologists have uncovered evidence that this system has been sustainable and highly productive since about 800 AD The Kibbutzim "intentional Communities" (communities established to achieve stated goals) in this case based in Socialist Principles In 2010, there were 270 kibbutzim in Israel They account for 9% of industrial output and $0% of agricultural output Kibbutzim, Intentional Communities Everything each person and family needs is provided by the Kibbutz from birth to death: housing, prepared food, laundry, child care, medical, educational, (through college), etc. All work is shared (rotated among adult members) including managerial positions Each person "earns" a small monthly stipend but all the stipends are equal Behavioral Control and Monitoring in an Intentional Community Agency and free riding are handled by personal knowledge, close scrutiny and gossip, although asocial behavior also brings fines (small group size – everyone knows everyone else), often around 100 to 500 but Kibbutzim of up to 100 do exist Shared religion and devotion to socialist principles also make it unlikely that persons will behave asocially (unsatisfied persons will migrate to the private sector) How successful? Many Kibbutzim are now beginning their third generation of continuous membership
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