CL 113 Lecture 30
CL 113 Lecture 30 CL 113LEC
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Palermo on Monday April 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CL 113LEC at University at Buffalo taught by Woodard, R D in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Myth & Religion Anc World in Classical Studies at University at Buffalo.
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Date Created: 04/18/16
Lecture 30 4/15/16 Two different forms of Avestan in Avesta Gathic Avestan (old) Young Avestan (more recent form) Differences between the 2 are extreme Pahlavi Collective set of languages Term used to identify several different languages Middle Iranian (more recent than what is found in Avesta) Avesta is divided into sections—3 major sections 1. The Yasna Contains hymns that are used in the liturgy of worship Subsection of the Yasna—Gathas hymns 2. The Yasts Contains 21 hymns sung during sacrificial rituals 3. The Videvdat Anti-demonic (getting rid of demons) Iranian society is divided into 3 classes 1. Zaotar= priests 2. Nar= warriors 3. Vastar= workers There is a fourth class added to society 4. Huiti= artisan class Zarathustra He is a reformer Promotes 1 god above all other gods o Ahura Mazdah o He is placed far above other gods by Zara Functional monotheism Introduces a diametric opposition between good/evil, truth/lie o As he promotes a god to heights, the diametric opposition occurs Divine being associated with each of these elements of diametric opposition Truth: o Spenta (spunta) Mainyu ‘helpful spirit’ (embodies truth) Lie: o Angra Mainyu ‘evil spirit’ o Satanic figure—embodies evil/lies Ohrmazd—reconstructed in Middle Iranian of Ahura Mazdah Ahriman—middle Iranian form of Angra Mainyu Ahura Mazdah = ‘lord wise’ God of wisdom Zarathustra Introduce a new set of divine beings o Amesa Spentas ‘immortal helpers’ o The 6 Amesa’s are spread across the trifunctionality of Iran society o Hierarchically ranked Amesa Spentas in order of rank 1 function: (Vohu and Asa are the 2 of the highest ranked) Vohu Manah ‘good mind’, patron of cattle o Evil Thought/mind= Vohu’s demon/personal enemy Asa Vahista ‘best truth’, patron of fire o Personal enemy/demon= Indra 2ndfunction: Xsathra ‘power’ or ‘dominion’ o Patron of metal o Personal demon= Saurva (parallel to SKRT Sarva/Siva/Rudra) rd 3 function: Armaiti ‘devotion’ or ‘piety’ o Sometimes male or female o Patron of earth o Personal demon= Nanhaithya (cognate SKRT Nasatyas/Asvins) Haurvatat ‘health’ o Patron of water o Personal enemy= thirst Ameretat ‘immortality’ o Always presented with Haurvatat o Patron of plants o Personal demon= famine Inseparable from Ahura Mazdah They are personifications of his attributes Where did Zara get the names for the Amesa Spentas? Asa Vahista Transformed/parallel to Varuna Evidence: o Asa- young Avestan o Areta- old Avestan = young Avestan Asa o SKRT: rta ‘order’ o Varuna and Indra are set in opposition in Vedic tradition Vahista o Skrt cognate= Vasistha (son of Varuna in Rig Veda) Vohu Manah Transformed/parallel to Mitra He is kind like Mitra is st Mitra and Varuna are 2 chief 1 function deities in Vedic Xsathra Skrt cognate: kstara ‘power’ Ksatriya Armaiti Transformed/parallel to Sarasvati o Closely associated to Asvins and Indra 3 function figure Haurvatat Ameretat --They are both lowest ranking Amesa rd Always mentioned together; 3 function divine twins Remind us of the Asvins Survive in good and demonic forms Nanhaithya ‘demons’ opposed to Armaiti (demonic form)
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