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CL 113 Lecture 30

by: Lauren Palermo

CL 113 Lecture 30 CL 113LEC

Lauren Palermo
GPA 4.0

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Myth & Religion Anc World
Woodard, R D
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Palermo on Monday April 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CL 113LEC at University at Buffalo taught by Woodard, R D in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Myth & Religion Anc World in Classical Studies at University at Buffalo.

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Date Created: 04/18/16
Lecture 30 4/15/16 Two different forms of Avestan in Avesta  Gathic Avestan (old)  Young Avestan (more recent form)  Differences between the 2 are extreme Pahlavi  Collective set of languages  Term used to identify several different languages  Middle Iranian (more recent than what is found in Avesta) Avesta is divided into sections—3 major sections 1. The Yasna  Contains hymns that are used in the liturgy of worship  Subsection of the Yasna—Gathas hymns 2. The Yasts  Contains 21 hymns sung during sacrificial rituals 3. The Videvdat  Anti-demonic (getting rid of demons) Iranian society is divided into 3 classes 1. Zaotar= priests 2. Nar= warriors 3. Vastar= workers  There is a fourth class added to society 4. Huiti= artisan class Zarathustra  He is a reformer  Promotes 1 god above all other gods o Ahura Mazdah o He is placed far above other gods by Zara  Functional monotheism  Introduces a diametric opposition between good/evil, truth/lie o As he promotes a god to heights, the diametric opposition occurs Divine being associated with each of these elements of diametric opposition Truth: o Spenta (spunta) Mainyu ‘helpful spirit’ (embodies truth) Lie: o Angra Mainyu ‘evil spirit’ o Satanic figure—embodies evil/lies  Ohrmazd—reconstructed in Middle Iranian of Ahura Mazdah  Ahriman—middle Iranian form of Angra Mainyu Ahura Mazdah = ‘lord wise’  God of wisdom Zarathustra  Introduce a new set of divine beings o Amesa Spentas ‘immortal helpers’ o The 6 Amesa’s are spread across the trifunctionality of Iran society o Hierarchically ranked Amesa Spentas in order of rank 1 function: (Vohu and Asa are the 2 of the highest ranked)  Vohu Manah ‘good mind’, patron of cattle o Evil Thought/mind= Vohu’s demon/personal enemy  Asa Vahista ‘best truth’, patron of fire o Personal enemy/demon= Indra 2ndfunction:  Xsathra ‘power’ or ‘dominion’ o Patron of metal o Personal demon= Saurva (parallel to SKRT Sarva/Siva/Rudra) rd 3 function:  Armaiti ‘devotion’ or ‘piety’ o Sometimes male or female o Patron of earth o Personal demon= Nanhaithya (cognate SKRT Nasatyas/Asvins)  Haurvatat ‘health’ o Patron of water o Personal enemy= thirst  Ameretat ‘immortality’ o Always presented with Haurvatat o Patron of plants o Personal demon= famine Inseparable from Ahura Mazdah  They are personifications of his attributes Where did Zara get the names for the Amesa Spentas? Asa Vahista  Transformed/parallel to Varuna  Evidence: o Asa- young Avestan o Areta- old Avestan = young Avestan Asa o SKRT: rta ‘order’ o Varuna and Indra are set in opposition in Vedic tradition  Vahista o Skrt cognate= Vasistha (son of Varuna in Rig Veda) Vohu Manah  Transformed/parallel to Mitra  He is kind like Mitra is st  Mitra and Varuna are 2 chief 1 function deities in Vedic Xsathra  Skrt cognate: kstara ‘power’  Ksatriya Armaiti  Transformed/parallel to Sarasvati o Closely associated to Asvins and Indra  3 function figure Haurvatat Ameretat --They are both lowest ranking Amesa rd  Always mentioned together; 3 function divine twins  Remind us of the Asvins  Survive in good and demonic forms  Nanhaithya ‘demons’ opposed to Armaiti (demonic form)


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