Anatomy & Physiology, Week 1 Notes Part 1
Anatomy & Physiology, Week 1 Notes Part 1 VS 3014
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Notetaker on Monday April 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to VS 3014 at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Sharon Grace in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology in Animal Science and Zoology at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 04/18/16
Learning Objectives Musculoskeletal System – Part 1 Ch. 4 1) Define and/or locate: a) Prefixes i) “macro-“: large ii) “micro-“: small iii) “inter-“: between iv) “intra-“: inside or within v) “hemato-“: blood vi) “osteo-“: bone vii) “extra-“: outside or beyond viii)“poly-“: many ix) “brachy-“: short x) “cephalo-“: head xi) “hypo-“: beneath xii) “pyo-“: pus xiii)“endo-“: within or inside xiv)“meso-“: middle xv) “ecto-“: outer xvi)“peri-“: around xvii) “para-“: near xviii) “pneumo-“: lungs xix)“leuko-“: white xx) “erythro-“: red b) Suffixes i) “-ology”: a branch of knowledge or science ii) “-dactyl”: toes iii) “-plasia”: formation iv) “-poesis”: formation or production c) Anatomy i) Macroscopic (gross) anatomy: visible to the naked eye ii) Microscopic anatomy: not visible to the naked eye iii) Systematic anatomy: anatomy of the systems of the body d) Physiology: Study of the integrated functions of the body e) Gross: structure of organs and tissues that are visible to the naked eye. f) Cell: the smallest structural and functional unit of an organism g) Tissue: distinct types of material of which animals or plants are made h) Organ: a part of an organism that is typically self-contained and has a specific vital function i) Body System: a group of body organs or structures that together perform one or more vital functions j) Vascular: of or relating to, affecting, or consisting of a vessel or vessels, especially those that carry blood. k) Matrix: extra cellular part of tissue that provides structural support the cells l) Embryology: study of developmental anatomy, spanning conception to birth m)Osteology: study of bones n) Cardiology: study of the heart and blood system o) Myology: study of the muscular system p) Arthrology: study of the articular (joint) system q) Neurology: study of the nervous system r) Histology: microscopic study of anatomy s) Clavicle: collar bone (humans, cats, and birds) t) Nares: nostrils u) Stenotic/stenosis: narrow v) Foramen: small opening w) Fracture: breaking of a bone x) Tendon: connection of muscle to bone y) Ligament: connection of bone to bone z) Lymph/lymphatic vessel: return collected tissue fluid to the heart for recirculation. aa) Ilium of pelvis: largest bone in the pelvis ab) Ileum of small intestine: part of the small intestine ac) Marrow/medulla: contains elements for formation of blood cells ad) Biped and quadruped ae) Sternum: floor of boney thorax af)Interosseous: situated between bones ag) Stifle: knee ah) Patella: knee cap ai) Carpus: wrist aj) Tarsus: ankle ak) Suture: fibrous joints al) Radiograph: x-ray am) Hematopoiesis: process of creating new blood cells in the body STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION OF THE BODY 2) Name the six levels of structural organization in the body. 1. Chemicals 4. Organs 2. Cells 5. Body Systems 3. Tissue 6. Organisms 3) Name the smallest organizational level of the body. - Chemicals 4) Name the smallest unit of life in the body. -Cells 5) List the eleven systems of the body. 1. Integumentary (skin & appendages) 2. Skeletal 7. Digestive 3. Muscular 8. Urinary 4. Nervous 9. Lymphatic & Immunity 5. Endocrine 10. Respiratory 6. Cardiovascular 11. Reproductive BASIC TISSUES 6) Name the 4 types of basic tissues found in the mammalian body. 1. Epithelium 3. Nervous Tissue 2. Connective T. 4. Muscle T. 7) Name the 3 embryonic layers; distinguish the outer, middle, and inner layers 1. Endoderm (“endo” = within/inside) 2. Mesoderm (“meso”= middle) 3. Ectoderm (“ecto”= outer) 8) Name the most abundant tissue type. - Connective 9) Name the 3 types of muscle. 1. Smooth 2. Skeletal 3. Cardiac BONE 10) Explain why some species are more prone to “design problems” of the skeleton than are other species. - Natural mutations, intentional breeding of defects 11) Name some of the “design problems” found in brachycephalic dogs and cats - Partial airway obstruction - Skin fold pyoderma - Irritation to corneas from folded skin BONE AS A TISSUE 12) Discuss some of the features of bone as a living tissue. 13) Describe the blood, lymphatic, and nerve supply to bone. 14) Name the opening in long bones that allows blood vessels to enter the bone. - Nutrient foramen 15) Know the composition of mature bone by weight. - 1/3 organic framework, 2/3 inorganic (non-live), other 50% “other stuff” 16) Name the primary connective tissue of the organic component of bone. - Cells + Matrix 17) Name the 4 types of cells present in the organic component bone. 1. Osteoclasts 3. Osteocytes 2. Osteoblasts 4. Progenitor (stem) cells 18) Name the functions of bones. - Protection, rigidity and form levers, aid locomotion, storage of minerals, form the cellular blood elements. 19) Name the 3 blood cell types that are formed in the bone marrow. 1. Erythrocytes 2. Platelets 3. Leukocytes ANATOMY OF BONES 20) Know the main parts of mature long bone. - Diaphysis, epiphysis, metaphysis, epiphyseal cartilage (“physis”) 21) Give the alternative names for “adult” bone and “juvenile” or “immature” bone - “Adult” bone = lamellar bone - “ Juvenile” or “immature” bone = woven bone 22) Briefly discuss how juvenile bone can be distinguished from adult bone by visual inspection of a bone specimen or on a radiograph. - Woven bone is not visible on a radiograph. 23) Name the types of gross appearances of adult bone. - Compact (“cortical”) bone = appears solid or dense - Cancellous (“spongy”) bone = visible spaces in it. 24) Distinguish compact bone from spongy bone and be able to identify each on a radiograph or specimen. 25) Give the alternative name(s) for epiphyseal cartilage. - Growth plate, physis 26) Name the structure that separates the epiphysis and metaphysis of immature bone. - Physis 27) Name the structure which gives rise to increase in the length of juvenile bone. - Growth plate 28) Describe the type of bone found in the medullary cavity of a long bone. - Marrow 29) Give the name of the surface where the surface of one bone forms a joint with another bone. - Articular cartilage 30) In general terms, describe the location and function of hyaline cartilage. - Translucent type of cartilage present in joints, found on articular surfaces and the epiphyseal plate 31) Know the classification of bones according to gross appearances and give their general functions. CLINICAL APPLICATIONS 32) Discuss briefly the concept of premature closure of a growth plate in juvenile animals. - Premature closure of a growth plate in juvenile animals. One bone becomes longer than the other. If they are joined together, the growing bone will bow in the same direction. DIRECTIONAL TERMS AND PLANES 33) Know and recognize the commonly used directional terms, planes and anatomic positions (recumbency) 34) Distinguish pronation and supination.
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