Global Geography Notes Week 13
Global Geography Notes Week 13 GEOG 1010 - 003
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GEOG 1010 - 003
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsey Bixler on Monday April 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1010 - 003 at Auburn University taught by Daniel A McGowin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Global Geography in Geography at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/18/16
Global Geography Week 13 HIV/AIDS- War kept HIV out of Angola for the most part. Botswana has less kids because of HIV. They are trying to educate people and getting people to use contraceptives. Geography of HIV- Rural vs. Urban- Urban has higher rates of HIV. Rural-spaces have less medical resources so people die without knowing they had it, also people with HIV in Rural spaces are kicked out and ostracized. Africa is home to tons of deadly diseases. Why does Africa have all these diseases? Can be traced back to geography Malaria- highest percent of malaria death is in Africa- caused by mosquitos Yellow fever- found in central Africa River blindness- spread by the black fly by fast moving water- mostly found in central Africa Ebola- disease that attacks your blood circulation system- a certain string found in central Africa has a 96% death rate. Outbreak in 2013 was found in West Africa. 2000 fatalities, 54% rate of death Trypanosomiasis- Sleeping Sickness- makes people very lethargic- the vaccine for this is 10% fatal. Other less deadly vaccines are very expensive Guinea worm- found in tropical areas- president Carter has gotten it down to 2 cases Why does Africa have so many diseases- the biggest problem with Africa is that they have a very large unbroken tropical space. Better sanitation also could help- better drinking water Zimbabwe- situation is created solely by its leader- Used to be Rhodesia- British colony but Britain did not have a lot of control over it. Ian Smith- European leader that did help them prosper- 20% of Rhodesia was white. Government was taken over by Robert Mugabe- took over with the idea to take the land from the white farmers to help the black farmers. But instead of giving it to black farmers and gave it to his friends in political power who don’t know how to farm the land. Continued to take things from the whites and giving them to their friends. Many white Zimbabweans left. Cricket is large in Zimbabwe- Mugabe wouldn’t allow white players to play- black and white players both protested. Mugabe’s affect on the economy- in the 1990s the Zimbabwean’s economy started to go down- he decided to print a lot of money- this cause hyperinflation. They have had to revalue and reissue currency 9 times. $2,000 Zimbabwe currency just to buy bread. People made wall paper out of Zimbabwe currency- no one stole it- shows how worthless it is. Central Africa Republic- Land Locked- Jean-Bedel Bokassa- spent half the county’s money on a giant throne for is inauguration for “president for life.” Former French colony- it is said that French soldiers and UN members have made children here commit bestiality. Chad- Ounianga Lakes- The Sahara desert is growing and taking over the lakes. Plate tectonics- for the most part Africa lacks mountain ranges. Places and continents have pulled apart from Africa. Pangaea- all other continents pulled apart from Africa even when they were all connected. Africa does not have many earthquakes. Escarpments (plateaus)- flat top with a steep valley There are some highlands- Ethiopian highlands (high evelation helps with long distance running) Kingdom of Kaffa- brought us the name for coffee African Rift valley- shows where Africa is pulling apart- Africa will eveuntally “fall into the ocean” Mt Kilimanjaro- tallest free standing (mountain that stands by itself) mountain in the world. Snow topped. African Great Lakes- Lake Vitoria- not a rift lake- one of the largest in the world. Lake Turkana- rift lake in a desert region that goes through tropical region to Malawi Lake Nyasa (Malawi)- this lake has a naming controversy- has to do with boarder controversy between Malawi and Tanzania. Lake Victoria- home to Hippos- more people die from hippo attacks than any other animal in Africa. Nile River- two sources- lake victoria is one- Longest river in the world. North Africa’s principle river. The Congo river- central Africa’s principle river. Largest river in Africa and second largest in the world (by volume). Meandering river. Zambezi River- Southern Africa’s principle river. Also shows the pulling apart of Africa. Victoria Falls- Devils pool- the way the water hits rocks people don’t go over the edge. Madagascar- home to lemurs. Home to very tall trees that are not found anywhere else. Does not have a good environmental record . The language they speak is a south east Asian language- Madagasci- Austronesian language. They also speak French Tropical Savannas- transition from rainforest Steppe Climates- transition from savannas to desert. Millions of people live here. The Sahel- not many cities here- millions of nomadic people. Very delicate area- relies on the little rain that comes. They have monsoons- dry season in the winter. Get significant rain in the summer. Chad can get up to 10.7 inches of rain. But sometimes the rains don’t come- in the 60s the rains didn’t come for 5 years. This causes famine and widespread suffering. As desertification occurs the nomads are losing more land. How to help this- the Acacia albida tree- native to Australia- they provide shade and things can be grown under them. Alternate cropping- farming zaps all the nutrients out of the ground. Rotating the land that is used allows the nutrients to be maintained. People have to actually do these things though. April 14 , 2016 Kalahari- transition zone between tropical zone in the center and desert in the north Sahara- largest desert. Occupies north Africa. Namib Desert- driest desert in the world- parts of it have never received rainfall- it is on the coast- a cold ocean current flows against the Namib desert keeping precipitation out. Has some of the toughest plants in the world- they rely on dew. Sand dunes- some of the tallest sand dunes in the world. Namibia- doing quite well- though it does not have a lot of agricultural area- mostly desert- but they do have a lot of minerals and natural resources. History- in many ways South West Africa was fighting the Germans in Africa in WWI- After the war Germany’s territory in South West Africa was given to South Africa (the country) White government in South Africa (country) out a white government in charge on South West Africa (territory) in the 70s 1% of the territories population (white) controlled the government UN told South Africa that they had to give up South West Africa because they had not been given the option to be independent. South Africa still put troops in South West Africa Both the Soviet Union and the US had to push South Africa to completely let go of South West Africa- finally they gave it up and Namibia was created Republic of South Africa- power is spread out among three capitals. Swaziland and Lesotho are kingdoms within South Africa that are independent. One of the most developed countries in Sub Saharan Africa- this is because of their geographic significance. Demographics- 80.2% Africans, 8.4- Europeans, 8.9 colored, 2.5- Asian. The government used these numbers to keep the country divided. Afrikaners- decedents of the Dutch- fought everyone to get power. Rigged elections- created a system that segregated you from birth till death- Apartheid Apartheid- a system of rules and regulations that maintained segregation in order to keep the white government in power. Prohibition of mixed marriage act, immorality act- said you can’t date someone of a different race, group areas act- separation of public areas- trains, restaurants etc. Homeland concept- the rest of the world started to try to punish Africa for Apartheid- embargoing them, kicking them out of the UN and Olympics. SO they decided to create homelands- they tried to move Africans to the worst territories and let them be independent- just tried to get rid of them even though they were 80% of the population- became some of the most lawless areas in South Africa. No one bought that this was a good idea- finally in the 80s they decided maybe they should change- F.W, de Klerk- President who recognized that Apartheid was killing his country because no one is investing in South Africa- the decision to end Apartheid was an economic decision, at the time he did support Apartheid before changing it. Nelson Mandela- first African president after Apartheid ended. Him and Klerk won the noble peace prize. South Africa hosted the World Cup- this was the first major international sports event in Africa. Not everything is perfect though- some say South Africa has gotten worse- has one of the most violent crime areas in the world. Have signs for High Jacking hot spots. Africans earn less than the Europeans (as much as 10 times of a gap). Volkstaadt- the Afrikaners want to create their own independent country in the cape region (some of the best land in South Africa). Nigeria- Largest country in Africa by population. 6 largest in the world. Has oil- A lot of the money that comes from oil goes the companies outside of Nigeria- Shell. Nigeria is fighting- sometimes oil fields get sabotaged. Why are they fighting- 500 different ethnic groups- over 200 languages. 3 largest- Hausa (North- Muslim, least successful, mistreated), Yoruba (Southwest, politically powerful), Igbo (South East, economically powerful, most of the oil fields control) Lagos- old capital. Abuja- new capital- trying to move capital in order balance power because it Is located in the middle. Religious divide- creates problems. Sharia law is in place in the north. Boko Haram- has tried to force a radical adoption of Islam in Nigeria. Most of the attacks that he has led have been in Islamic areas. Bring Back our girls- was about how moderate Muslim girls have been forced to be more radical Muslims- taking away their right to vote, etc. They announced that they are going to start killing geographers This has started to become a problem for other African countries. This is Africa’s greatest military threat right now. Burundi- on going situation having to do with Ethnic tension. The president of the country decided he was going to run for a third term. People got pissed about his. People pulled out of the election and he won because he was unopposed. Other issues started evolving- Ethnic war broke out. Fear of genocide between groups. Rwanda- nearly 20 years ago the situation occurred- millions of people were displaced or killed in a matter of two months. How it started- President of Rwanda was assassinated. The larger group rose up out of anger for this Hutu-majority- farmer decent - Tutsi- minority- nomadic decent- the two minority groups The Tutsis were put into power by the Germans because they were lighter in skin and had cows so they looked wealthy. After given power they were very cruel to the Hutus in order to keep the power After Hutus finally gained power the aggression was inflicted back on the Tutsis. After the president was killed the Hutus put out a radio call to “cut down the tall trees.” Mass genocide of Tutsis. One of the worst genocides since WWII. West ignored this for a while. Hotel Rwanda- movie- showed that there are no differences between the two groups- only differences is choice of occupation. Interahamwe- youth group that was brainwashed into thinking that the Tutsis were bad. Serial Raping- They would find people who were infected by HIV and would gang rape Tutsi women. Many people fled to Zaire- cause conflict to bled into here- This leads to Zaire’s fall and change into DR Congo.
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