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ENV 1301: Week 15

by: Anna Frazier

ENV 1301: Week 15 ENV 1301

Anna Frazier
Baylor University
GPA 3.8

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Nuclear energy
Exploring Environmental Issues
Dr. Larry Lehr
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna Frazier on Monday April 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENV 1301 at Baylor University taught by Dr. Larry Lehr in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Exploring Environmental Issues in Environmental Science at Baylor University.

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Date Created: 04/18/16
Wednesday, April 13, 2016 ENV 1301 Nuclear Energy - decreasing hydrocarbon • hydrocarbons we have in the ground: proven reserves (how much oil we know we have left) - declining resources - OPEC - How we use energy: • Electricity • Transportation • Domestic Energy • Industrial Energy - Liquid—gasoline - Electricity—heat up water to make steam, which turns the turbine, and the pressure of the steam turns the turbine, which has a shaft with a copper wire on it, which disrupts the magnetic field and yields electrons 1 Wednesday, April 13, 2016 - Hot water - Primary fuels—fuels we can burn immediately - How to be sustainable: • increase efficiency—maximizing productivity • conservation—not using as much - Renewable — being able to use something again and again renewable fuel • - wind - water - solar energy • Isotopes—Elements that have a different number of protons and neutrons - Radioactive isotopes/nuclides—spontaneously emits particles and energy to balance the forces inside - three types of radiation • alpha radiation—high speed (of light) positive particles • beta radiation—high speed negative particles (heavier than the positive particles) • gamma radiation—energy - Two types of cells • haploid — sex cells (sperm and egg) • diploid—the cell reproduces itself - Halflife—the amount of time it takes for the cell to emit half the mass - background radiation— - fuel rods—fuel pellets are held in rods submerged in water. as they emit particles and energy, they run into eachother. - fission—the process of splitting atoms - daughter nuclides if a neutron hits another atom, the atom breaks, producing neutrons and other nuclei 2 Wednesday, April 13, 2016 • decay series — when it emits positive energy, it changes into another atom - control rods— - Fission reaction: • meltdown—the fuel rods get too hot, melting the fuel rods, the container, and boiling the water, and melting a hole in the earth, boiling the groundwater, and exploding out through the top of the earth’s crust, getting caught in the atmosphere - breeder reactor—will produce more fuel than it uses up (by producing isotopes with long half-lives) Renewable Energy - wind, water, - we can not make enough fuel ethanol to replace the gasoline we are using now - being more efficient: • using more solar energy • two types: - active solar—uses a device (i.e. solar panel)// must have a normal angle to work - passive solar—windows, walls, and floors are made to collect, store, and distribute solar energy in the form of heat in the winter and reject solar heat in the summer. This is called passive solar design because, unlike active solar heating systems, it does not involve the use of mechanical and electrical devices. The key to design a passive solar building is to best take advantage of the local climate performing an accurate site analysis. • electrical device—photovoltaic (PV) thermal device—thermalvoltaic (TV) • - most abundant element on the planet is silicone (sand) - two largest energy sources we have left: • efficiency and conservation - TCEQ— texas commission for environmental quality • epa 3 Wednesday, April 13, 2016 - Green plants are the only organisms on the planet capable of concentrating that energy - Biofuels - Ethanol fuels — - Facultative anaerobes — can live with and without oxygen • yeast — in the presence of oxygen, yeast will produce ethanol - alcohol is made in a distillation column by differences in boiling point - ambient — conditions outside - government mechanisms to force conservation 4


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