Abnormal Psych, developmental disorders
Abnormal Psych, developmental disorders Psych 385
U of L
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Pirtle on Monday April 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 385 at University of Louisville taught by Dr. Irby in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Louisville.
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Date Created: 04/18/16
Developmental Disorders Monday, September 14, 2015 10:55 AM I. Defining childhood disorders a. DSM IV TR identified 34 disorders usually diagnosed in infancy, childhood or adolescence. b. DSM 5 describes these disorders in 2 separate chapters c. DSM5 neurodevelopment disorders include intellectual disability (mental retardation in DSMIV) and autism spectrum disorder (combining 4 separate DSMIV d/o's), as well as specific learning d/o's i. Childhood separation anxiety b DSM5 disruptive, impulsive-control and conduct d/o's include DSMIV Conduct Disorder and Oppositional-Defiant Disorder II Impact on developmental pathways a Abnormal experiences and/or conditions influence subsequent development in 3 ways: i. Greater reactivity to stress - inborn vulnerability that creates a risk factor to them as life goes forward. More likely to form other forms of psychological disorders such as separation anxiety ii. Skewed developmental adaption iii. Persistent disability II Intellectual disability: DSM5 a 3 essential criteria i. Deficits in general intellectual functioning, as determined clinical assessment: 1. DSM5 does not specify IQ levels in criteria ii Significant deficits in adaptive functioning, relative to age/culture, requiring support: 1. Communication 2. Social participation 3. Work or school 4. Independent living skills ii Onset during the developmental period (before age 18) II Causes of intellectual disability a Chromosomal anomalies i Fragile x syndrome 1. A specific defect in X chromosome 2. Rare; 1/2500 3. Pronounced physical characteristics (FLK - funny looking kid) a. Large, prominent ears b. Elongated face c. Pronounced eyebrow region d. Sexual dysfunction for males e. Difficulty with speech f. Poor social awareness g. More given to hyper activity 2 Males at greater risk ii Down Syndrome 1 Skull more rounded and smaller 2 Respiratory and breathing problems a. Sleep apnea b Metabolic disturbances i Phenylketonuria (PKU) 1 Caused by defective recessive gene involved in synthesis of enzyme that breaks down an amino acid 2 When the amino acid builds in the nervous system it has a neuro-toxic effect 3 18 months-2years began to age. Look older and lose abilities in motor and language skills ii Tay-Sachs Disease 1 Cherry-red spot on retina that is the marker of the disease 2 Limited to Eastern European jews ii Perinatal Environmental Factors 1 Congenital disorders 2 Drugs 3 Toxins 4 Trauma 5 Malnutrition/deprivation 6 HIV ii American Association of Mental Retardation II Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder a Essential Features: i 6+ symptoms in either area present for 6 months to a maladaptive degree ii Symptoms observed prior to age 12 iii Evident in 2 or more settings iv Significant impairment in social, academic, occupational functioning v In adults (over age 17) only 5 symptoms in either area required b ADHD i Prevalence: one of the most common childhood disorders 1 Neuroscience: 2 Treatment: ii Prognosis: 40% of ADHD children continue to have symptoms into adulthood II Autism diagnosis a Hans Asperger i Post-graduate thesis - 4 cases of extreme intelligence b Leo Kanner i First child psychiatrist at john hopkins b Lorna Wing i British psychiatrist b Raymond Babbitt c Temple Grandin d Controversies i Etiology v treatment v accommodation ii Innate v acquired iii Prevalence iv Dimensional spectrum II Autism: DSM 5 a 4 essential criteria i Deficit in social communication/interaction, as evidenced by: 1 Nonverbal behavior deficits 2 Deficits in development of age appropriate peer relationships 3 Deficits in social/emotional reciprocity *Four social styles: Lorna Wing I Aloof style II Passive style a Ex: the boy who would put his hand out whenever you'd say his name b Following professor to his car II Active, but odd style a Don't respond to shifts in conversation b Own preoccupation; bus or train schedule II Overformal, stilted style a Little professors - formal way of interacting with stereotypical ritual style I Restricted, repetitive behavior patterns, as evidenced by: a Stereotypical/repetitive speech, motor behavior, or use of objects b Excessive adherence to routine, rituals, or extreme resistance to change c Hyper/hypo - sensitivity to sensory input II Onset is identified in early childhood III Symptoms limit/impair functioning I Autism a Genetics: b Biochemistry: i Neurotransmitter differences in about 40% ii Elevated levels of serotonin iii Decreased levels of energizing neurotransmitters such a glutamase iv Because of this will sometimes respond to medication that effect serotonin levels b Neurological difference: i An increased level of white matter (glial cells - nonneuron) b Mind blindness i Understanding and empathy scewed b Sensory perceptual integration: i Hear music and see colors associated with music
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