Biomechnics, Ch. 1
Biomechnics, Ch. 1 HSS 387, biomechanics
U of L
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Pirtle on Monday April 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HSS 387, biomechanics at University of Louisville taught by Werner in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Exercise Physiology in Exercise Biology at University of Louisville.
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Date Created: 04/18/16
Chapter 1-Foundations of structural kinesiology Wednesday, August 26, 2015 7:49 AM I. Directional Terminology a. Anterior/ventral-front b. Posterior/dorsal-back c. Inferior d. Superior e. Lateral f. Medial g. Distal-almost always in reference to limbs h. Proximal-" II Combinational directional terminology a. Anteroinferior b. Contralateral-one side referring to another, cross the midline to get there c. Ipsilateral-on the same side; ex: left knee to left hip II Planes of motion a. Sagittal-divide body into right and left; front and back b. Frontal-divide body into anterior and posterior; jumping jack c. Transverse-divide body at waist; baseball swing, tennis serve II Axes of Rotation a. All planes rotate on an axis; always an axis associated with a plane of motion i. Transverse plane on vertical axis ii. Frontal plane on sagittal axis iii. Sagittal plane on frontal axis II Diagonal planes of motion (oblique) a High (top to bottom; tennis and baseball) and low (bottom to top; soccer and football kicker) diagonal plane b Combinations of planes II Osteology a Axial skeleton-protects vital organs; not much motion but serve vital role in protection b Appendicular skeleton-limbs, things that move c Functions of skeletal system II Bone properties a Bones adapt to stress, repairs and becomes stronger when broken.. The stress the bone is put under makes the bone adapt to withhold more stress (wolffs law) b Bone composition i. Calcium carbonate-molecules that compose structure of bone ii. Calcium phosphate iii. Collagen-sturdy and structural support of bones iv. Water II Bone markings a Processes-something that sticks off a bone i. Crest ii. Epicondyle iii. Line iv. Suture v. Trochanter vi. Tubercle vii. tuberosity b Cavity-a hole or groove of some sort i. Fossa ii. Meatus iii. Facet-usually front of bone iv. Foramen-blood vessel and nerves travel through v. Sinus vi. sulcus vii. Process II Types of bones-know all and two examples of each a Long-humerus and radius; levers, easier to move b Short-wrist and ankle; shock absorber c Flat-ribs, scapula; protection d Sesamoid-patella* e Irregular-vertebrae, pubis II Classification of joints a Articulation i. Functional classifications 1. Synarthrodial (immovable) a. Sutures in skull b. Gomphosis (teeth fitting into mandible) 2 Amphiarthrodial (slightly moveable) a. Syndesmosis i. Two bones joined together by a strong ligament or an interosseus membrane that allows minimal movement between the bones ii. Coracoclavicular joint, distal tibiofibular b Symphysis i. Joint separated by a fibrocartilage pad that allows very slight movement between the bones ii. Symphysis pubis, intervertebral discs b Synchondrosis i. Type of joint separated by hyaline cartilage that allows very slight movement between the bones ii. Costochondral joints of the ribs 2 Diarthrodial (freely moveable) a Elbow, knee, hip b Always synovial c Degrees of freedom i. Motion in 1 plane = 1 degree of freedom (uniaxial) ii. Motion in 2 planes = 2 degrees of freedom (biaxial) iii. Motion in 3 planes = 3 degrees of freedom (multiaxial) b Joint stability i. More mobility = less stable b Factors affecting stability and mobility i. Bones ii. Muscles iii. Cartilage iv. Ligaments and CT v. Proprioception and motor control vi. Davis' law 1. Ligaments, muscles, and other soft tissue when placed under tension will adapt over time by lengthening; when maintained in a loose or shortened position over a period of time, it will gradually shorten b Joint anatomy i Joint capsule ii Joint cavity iii Ligaments iv Fibrocartilage disks-absorbing shock v Hyaline cartilage b Function i Low blood supply II Types of Diarthrodial joints - know example of each and degrees of freedom and movement a Arthrodial (gliding) joint i Two flat bony surfaces which butt against each other to allow gliding ii Multi-axial (3 axes of rotation) b Ginlymus (hinge) joint i Uniaxial b Trochoidal (pivot, screw) joint i Rotational movement along a long axis ii Uniaxial b Condyloidal joints i Permits movement in two planes without rotation ii Biaxial iii Movements: slide 45,46,47 1 Flexion and extension 2 abduction and adduction 3 Circumduction Slide 50-55 don’t need to know I Metacarpalphalngeal a. Enarthroidal (ball and socket, spheroidal) joint i.Permits movement in all planes ii.Multiaxial a Sellar (saddle) joint i.Ball and socket movement ii.Multiaxial a Joint action i. Range of motion (ROM) - the area through which a joint may be moved freely and painlessly ii. Flexion i. Bending movement that results in a decrease in joint angle by bringing bones together, usually in sagittal plane (from anatomical position) 1. Hand drawn near shoulder ii Extension i Straightening movement that results in an increase in joint angle by moving bones apart, usually in sagittal plane 1. Elbow joint when hand moves away from shoulder ii Abduction i Lateral movement away from midline of trunk in lateral plane 1. Raising arms or legs to side horizontally ii Adduction i Movement medially around longitudinal axis of a bone toward midline of body ii External rotation i Transverse plane ii Rotate laterally ii Internal rotation i Transverse plane ii Rotate medially ii Diagonal abduction iii Diagonal adduction iv Circumduction i Circular movement of a limb b Ankle and foot joint movements i Eversion i Turning sole of foot outward or laterally ii Inversion i Turning sole of foot inward or medially ii Dorsiflexion i Flexion movement of ankle that results in top of foot moving toward anterior tibia ii Plantar flexion i Extension movement of ankle that results in foot moving away from the body ii Neutral i Usually forced or when standing ii Pronation i A combination of ankle dorsiflexion, subtalar eversion, and forefoot abduction ii Supination i " plantar flexion, subtalar inversion, forefoot adduction b Shoulder i Depression i Inferior movement of shoulder girdle ii Elevation i Superior movement of shoulder girdle ii Shrugging shoulders ii Protraction iii Retraction iv Rotation downward v Rotation upward vi Horizontal abduction vii Horizontal adduction b Spine i Lateral flexion (side bending) ii Reduction i Return of spinal column to anatomic position from lateral flexion b Wrist and hand i Wrist flexion ii Wrist extension iii Radial deviation (flexion) iv Ulnar deviation (flexion) v Opposition of thumb vi Reposition of thumb b ExRx website
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